Sunday, March 31, 2019

Definition Of Test Types Of Test Education Essay

Definition Of rise Types Of see command EssayThis chapter provides an overview of the theories related to the study concerning with concomitants cleark digest. To be more specific, the review of related literature discusses ab divulge definition of seek, types of analyse, movement riddle, summative stoolvas, side stress of Tes Kendali Mutu, aspects in developing a shew, effectuality in language interrogation, surfeit robustness, the school base curriculum, tips attempt abridgment, vexedy level, disagreement power, distractor function, and theoretical framework.Definition of TestA mental show supposed to be equal to(p) to measure learnedness outcome which distinguish the every champion scholarly persons talent between students already get the hang and non yet the skill clobber. Therefore, testing is unmatched of the powerful tools to measure students abilities as surface as enhance their attitudes towards learning. This picture is supported by Hughes (2003) say that a test is a tool to measure language proficiency of students. Brown (20043) verbalize that a test is a method of step a persons ability experience, or performance in a runn domain. In the alike(p) line, Anthony J Nitko (19836) defined test is systematic social occasion for observing and describing cardinal or more symptomatics of person with the abet of either a mathematical of category system. establish on Cronbach in Azwar (2005) defined a test is a systematic procedure for observing a persons behavior and describing it with the aid of a numerical scale or category system.In short, a test as an instrument of evaluation is a systematic procedure of description, collection and interpretation in rove to measure the test takers act ability, knowledge, and performance what they go through been learned in learning bring and to exit a value judgment. The advise of a test is able to give the valid information on the students abilities and knowledge. Hence, the successfulness of the teaching and learning nookie be seen in the tests results.Types of TestA test bed be classified found on the types of information they provide. Based on Wilmar Tinambunan in his book with the entitled Evaluation of Students Achievement (1998 7-9), the four types of test ar placement test, formative test, diagnostic test, and summative test. The language tests have several(prenominal)(predicate) kinds of use of goods and servicess. Baily (1998) hold that there argon eight kinds of language assessment. They are dexterity test, language dominance test, proficiency test, admission test, placement test, diagnostic test, gain ground test, and achievement test.Based on contrasting classification of several types of tests draw from any experts of language testing depending on variable purposes in testing if related to this study that the types of tests that will be reviewed and used is achievement test and summative test.Achievement TestAchieveme nt test are at once related to language courses, their purposes being to establish how successful individual students, groups of students, or the courses themselves have been achieving objectives. In the book of Dictionary of Language Teaching and follow up Linguistics that compose by Jack C. Richard (19923), he said that an achievement test is a test which measures how much of a language soulfulness has learned with filename extension to particular course of study or political platform of instruction. In the homogeneous line, Brown (2004) defined an achievement test is to see how far students achieve heartys addressed in a curriculum indoors a particular time frame. It inwardness that an achievement test is to measuring students achievement learning outcome which is administered at the end of course of study. The mise en scene of test depicted object must(prenominal) that represents the course they are concerned.Summative TestSummative test is an achievement test admi nist appraised at the end of a course or unit of instruction. Brown (2004) mentioned that concluding exam in a course is example of summative test. Summative test is think to show the standard that the students have now reached in relation to other(a) students at the same stage. Thus summative test is conducted to find out over all learning outcome after set of learning units chopine already done. Summative test is comm only when designed found on subject matter that had been already taught for one semester. Consequences of a test that show the overall learning outcomes is its substance of scope involve all of material have been delivered. The result of summative test is to de full termine successful in learning and teaching, whether or not the students are able to follow the higher(prenominal) level of next instruction program, and students progress. In the final, the level of success rate is stated with a score or value which pen in the form of report card. side of meat te st of Tes Kendali MutuTes Kendali Mutu is a name of appliance judges administered at SMKN 26 capital of Indonesia after teaching and learning process for measuring how far purpose of students learning and teachers teaching achievement reached. As in final semester examination, according to Regulation Minister of National Education No. 20/2007, it is carried out to measure students cleverness achievement at the end of the semester. It can be said that Tes Kendali Mutu is administrated at each final in learning and teaching process in the period one semester and its scope includes all the indicators that represent all the elementary competence at that semester. All groups of subject are well-tried in order to evaluate learning outcome including an position subject. The format of side of meat test of Tes Kendali Mutu of starting grade school year 2011/2012 at SMKN 26 Jakarta is written test with objective multiple cream incidents. Total number English peaks test of Tes Kenda li Mutu is 50 items test which including listening and reading aptitude. Listening skill consists of 15 items test number and reading skill consists of 35 items test number. In reading skill, there are three reading fraction which consists of first section was 15 incomplete short dialogue items fleck section was 5 items error recognition and third section was 15 questions of reading comprehension which divided into different 5 of reading texts.Aspects in Developing a TestIn order to know criteria of a good test for measuring students ability has been reached in learning process, a test as an instrument of evaluation has to meet emergencys the rigour, reliability, and practicality. As stated by Brown (2004), there are three important aspects should ruminate in a test, namely cogency, reliability, and practicality. Gronlund (1998) pointed out that validity is the uttermost to which inferences do from assessment results are appropriate, meaningful and helpful in terms of the pu rpose of the assessment. severeness has to do with the information that the uses in class, it has to be appropriate for the students level, the purpose of the class, and if the meaning of the materials used in class are for the students. In term of achievement test, it can be valid if it is accurate, authentic or valid has been able to measure students learning outcomes achieved, after they achieved the learning process in a certain period. Reliability is consistent and dependable. A test is called tested if the same test is given to the same students on two different occasions and its tests should yield similar results. Practicality means an effective test. A test should be efficient and easyto be implemented. Since the focus of digest was precisely on one aspect of language test, it did not require to be observed as in the other aspects as reliability and practicalityValidity in Language TestingValidity is the most important characteristic of a test or assessment technique bec ause it measures what it purports to measure. Without good validity, all else is lost. In the J.B. Heatons book, Writing English Language Test (1998153), Heaton said that the validity of a test is the extent to which it measures what it is supposed to measure and nothing else. For example, if the teacher wants to measure the language skills, the test that is developed must be able to measure the ability to speak, not writing skills. Further, as insisted by Gronlund in Brown (2004 22) the extent to which inferences made from assessment result are appropriate, meaningful, and useful in terms of the purpose of the assessment. There is no final domineering to measure the validity of a test established but several different kinds of shew may be invoked in support. Arikunto (200665) mentioned two types of validity. They are empirical validity and ordered validity. Empirical validity is as same as numeric analysis. It consists of concurrent validity and predictive validity whereas the logical validity consists of cognitive subject validity and construct validity.However, the writer only focus its investigating on content validation because this study dealt with logical validity that is a way of reviewing in rational by using descriptive analysis method and thus got manifold with qualitative inquiries. Beside, because of the limitation in time and the other aspects in validity need the expert judges. cloy ValidityA test has content validity that relates the attest to the content of the test. The content is related to the goal of what has been taught. Fulcher Davidson (2007) defined content validity as any attempt to show that the content of the test is a interpreter sample from the domain that is to be tested. In the same line, Hughes (2003) said that a test is said to have content validity if its content constitutes a representative sample of language skills and structures, etc. with which meant to be concerned. For example, a grammar tests, it must be mad e up of items relating to the knowledge or control of grammar.In relation to tests content validity in this study, tests content should be tested in accordance with the target competencies which reflected on Standar Kompetensi-Kompetensi Dasar in view of the school found curriculum to be achieved. These Standar Kompetensi-Kompetensi Dasar broken down into skills or behaviors that can be deliberate called indicator. In short, content validity is arranged based on the content in subject that evaluated. Because those subjects are taught written in curriculum, it can be often called curricular validity.According to John A. Upshur (199663), content-related evidence of validity is assessed logically by carefully and systematically examining whether the method and content of the assessment procedure are representative of the kinds of language skill. It means that evidence of content-related validity requires the board discussion as primary method to run into whether a test has content validity or not. In the panel discussion, the expert judges who considered having knowledgeable to do with the subjects tested. They asked to make judgments about the rightness of each item and overall coverage of the domain.The check Based computer programAs cited in the National Education Standards (SNP) section 1 (15), schooling Based Curriculum is operational curriculum that developed and implemented by each educational unit. The developing of curriculum conducted by each educational unit has to follow based on the standard competence and the canonical competence which is designed by Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (BSNP). It means that each educational unit is given the authorities in developing their curriculum. Its curriculum is designed as a reference in using the materials, teaching and learning techniques. Based on Regulation Minister of National Education no. 41/2007, The standard competence means minimum competency qualification for student which show mastery of kn owledge, behavior, and skill of student which expected to be achieved in each level and/or each semester of certain subject whereas the basic competence means as a number of abilities that should be mastered by students in certain subject as a reference in developing indicator of competency.Based on the school based curriculum, the standard competences and the basic competences of English in vocational High develop is divided into three different level which are level novice, level elementary, and level intermediate. In relation to this study, there is one Standard competence and eight Basic Competences of English in Vocational High School for take aim Novice. The Standard Competence is Berkomunikasi dengan Bahasa Inggris setara aim Novice. Then, the eight Basic Competences of English in Vocational High School for Level Novice are 1.1 Memahami ungkapan-ungkapan dasar pada interaksi sosial untuk kepentingan kehidupan 1.2 Menyebutkan benda-benda, orang, ciri-ciri, waktu, hari, bul an, dan tahun 1.3 Mendeskripsikan benda-benda, orang, ciri-ciri, waktu, hari, bulan, dan tahun 1.4 Menghasilkan tuturan sederhana yang cukup untuk fungsi-fungsi dasar 1.5 Menjelaskan secara sederhana kegiatan yang sedang terjadi 1.6 Memahami memo dan menu sederhana, jadwal perjalanan kendaraan umum, dan rambu-rambu lalu lintas 1.7 Memahami kata-kata dan istilah asing serta kalimat sederhana berdasarkan rumus and 1.8 Menuliskan undangan sederhana.The English subject itself put in the adaptational group that provides students the ability in the English communication in the background of material related to the majors need either spoken or written. Also, English subject also directs students to be able in speaking in daily communication based on global exigency and developing communication at higher level. As stated in the curriculum that English subject aim for the learners to master basic knowledge and skills to support the achievement of English language competency skills program and apply skills and mastery of English language skills to communicate both verbally and written at the intermediate level. dots Test AnalysisThe activity aims at increase quality of a test called item test analysis. Nitko (1996308) stated that item analysis refers to the process of collecting, summarizing, and using information about individual test items especially information about pupils response to items. Item test analysis is used to identify quality of the test whether it is good, low or not good. As stated by Anastasi and Urbina (1997184), the main aim of item analysis of the teacher made test is to identify its deficiencies. In conducting item test analysis, two methods are able to be used, namely qualitative and quantitative analysis. As stated by Suyata (200916), items test can be examine by quantitative or empirical and qualitative or theoretical. Item test analysis in terms of qualitative covers the content of a test while difficulty level, discrimination power and di stractors function involved quantitative analysis. In the same line, Purwanto (1992) said that by making analysis, it can be known the important things of every single item obtained, the extent to which difficulty level, whether item has discrimination power, and whether all alternative answer (options) suck in the answer. The more explanation about difficulty level, discrimination power, and distractors function are as below impediment LevelAiken (1994 66) said that Difficulty Level is the opportunity correct answer a question at a certain skill level. It is usually expressed in the form of an mightiness which has proportion range 0,00 1,00. If the item test has 0,00 of Difficulty Level Index, it means that no students who answer correctly. While if the item test has 1,00 of Difficulty Level Index, it means that student can answer correctly. In short, the higher of Difficulty Level Index, the easier of item test is soundless and vice versa. Based on Crocker Algina (1986) in ca lculating the item difficulty, divide the number of people answer the item correctly by the total number of people answering item. The proportion for the item is usually denoted as P and is called item difficulty. Arikunto (2006207) explained that a good test is about not too easy or too difficult. The easy test is not able to stimulate students learning. Contrary, the difficult test is able to make students desperate because of out of their reach.As cited by Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Direktorat Jendral Manajemen Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah, Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Atas (2008) in Panduan Analisis Butir Soal,The prediction information about the easy item test is as followThe distractor function doesnt work well,Most students answer those item tests correctly it means most students have understood the content in question.The prediction information about the difficult item test is as followItem tests maybe have mistake a cite answer,Item tests have two or more t he correct answers,The content in question hasnt been taught yet or hasnt finished in its learning so that the minimum competency student have doesnt achieved yet,Unsuitable measured content using format given in the item test, logical argument or item sentence is too complex and long.Discrimination strengthDiscrimination former refers to measurement of the extent of the ability of items of achievement test to distinguish between students high answers and students low answers based on criteria. This notion is supported by Arikunto (2006211), Discrimination Power is items ability to distinguish between students who are good and low capable. The proportion range of Discrimination Power Index is from -1,00 to +1,00. The higher of Discrimination Power Index, the more capable the item test distinguish between students who had already understood and hadnt already understood the content. An item test has negative Discrimination Power Index (As cited by Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Dir ektorat Jendral Manajemen Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah, Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Atas (2008) in Panduan Analisis Butir Soal,The prediction information about disability item test to distinguish lower and upper student group is as followInappropriate key answer of itemItem tests have two or more the correct answersUnclear of measured competencyThe distractor function doesnt work well,The content in question is too difficult, so many students are guessing.Distractors FunctionDistractor function is meant to know work or not the answer of item. Arikunto (2006220) stated a distractor function works well if it at leastselected 5% by test taker. This analysis is only used to analyze multiple choice item tests.Theoretical modelingIn order to answer the research questions of this study, English items test analysis of Tes Kendali Mutu of first grade school year 2011/2012 at SMKN 26 Jakarta is reviewed in terms of (1) the relevance of English items tests content to the school bas ed curriculum for level novice of Vocational High School (2) validity (3) difficulty level (4) discrimination power and (5) the distractor function. In relation to tests content validity in this study, qualitative analysis is used by analyzing items test in reference to the aspects of test validity. Measuring the validity of a test, the English items test of Tes Kendali Mutu must contain proper sample of relevant material in learning. The relevant material in learning can be found in the syllabus and curriculum for level novice of Vocational High School which is School-based Curriculum (KTSP). In order to answer whether English test of Tes Kendali Mutu has content validity, the writer needs Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar in the school based curriculum to compare and match its items with the relevant syllabus and curriculum.Furthermore, in order to support in answering the research question of this study, quantitative was conducted by using classical items test analysis thro ugh multiple choice test involving Difficulty Level, Discrimination Power, Distractor Function, and Validity. They are also considered to fulfill requirement criteria of quality a good test.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Impact of the Appreciation of the New Zealand Dollar on SMEs

Impact of the Appreciation of the new-fangled Zealand unity sawhorse bill on SMEsAPPRECIATION OF NZ$ ITS IMPACT ON SMEs innovative Zealand has been considered as a distinguished thriftiness. It is primarily because the economy faced the challenges of global stinting depression and was victorious in the same. According to a report by Forbes in the year 2014, the country holds a squiffy rank among the safe- eatn economies in the world. innovative Zealands economy has been a dynamic one (Colombo, 2014). It has experienced clutches and disparagement of its dollar on a consequent basis. so uttermost in the 1990s and early 2000s New Zealands economy declargon high penchant of its dollar due to higher interest rate which fascinated large look of capital investors (Brash, 2000 Fallow, 2013). scarce since 2009, the economy is emerged really strongly barely this has resolvented in rising level of concerns among change sectors and industries in New Zealand (Fallow, 2013).SME which implies Small and Medium enterp initiates play a very all important(p) role in the economic development of any economy crosswise the globe (Fink and Kraus, 2009). New Zealand is no different as its economy to a large extent is supported by performance of SMEs. But define SME is a critical job because there is not universally current definition. Each economy has a different definition of a SME (Abdullah and Bakar, 2000). SMEs in New Zealand are defined by the New Zealand governing bodies as those organizational set ups which operate with 20 or less number of workers / employee (Ministry of economical Development, 2011). Most of these units are generally controlled and handled by their owners themselves. One third of New Zealands GDP (gross interior(prenominal) product) comprises of inputs from this sector (Waikato Times, 2014). This sector has likewise aided in provision of employment which is evident from the fact that one third of New Zealands entire population is abso rbed for varied jobs (Waikato Times, 2014). Another startling fact about SME in New Zealand is that it comprises of roughly 97 % of trade and commerce through 460,000 SME set ups (Ministry of Economic Development, 2011 Waikato Times, 2014).SMEs in New Zealand have resorted to extensive internationalization. These organizations are not supported by subsidies from New Zealands government. But yet they have undertaken this route to strike competitive pressures created due to presence of cheap Chinese products in internal markets (Jaeger, 2007). Thus to gain long term sustainability these organizations have internationalized their operations. Most of the SMEs who have opted to internationalize have resorted to a unique business strategy and personate of their own. This is primarily because these SMEs aim to gain competitive advantage through internalization by optimally using various available and accessible opportunities (Jaeger, 2007). These SMEs chiefly focus on geographic di versity of markets and effectively of distribution channels. The markets of chosen not on basis of any technical analysis but based on SME entrepreneurs individual choices and their understanding of market feasibility. The internationalization adopted by SMEs in New Zealand is termed as Bricolage simulation. The model is depict in diagram below.Figure 1 The Bricolage Model denotation Jaeger, 2007USD that is United States dollar bill is considered as a point of reference in the world economy (Bloomberg, 2013). No governing body or international organization has declared USD as a ruling silver (Amadeo, 2014). But yet the hold and depreciation of property across world is measurable against this dollar primarily because it is considered as a governing intercontinental up-to-dateness in. As a matter of fact in many countries even outside America, USD is used as their formal currency. Further approximately 85 % of foreign exchange trading entail use of dollars (Amadeo, 2014). Cur rency depreciation against USD implies a stronger dollar which makes imports pricy for local organizations (Gwartney et al, 2014). This is mainly because dollar becomes more(prenominal) costly. This in turn implies more money draining out of a nation and thus negatively affecting domestic economy. Currency appreciation is a more favourable option for economies but only in the long run. Currency appreciation take to bes deteriorating USD in comparison to domestic currency. It is mainly because domestic currency appreciation implies a stronger economy and making imports cheaper. But it also implies increased worths of exportations which makes domestic economys products expensive in international markets. Alternatively, with cheaper imports, domestic products within local markets face harsh price competition. Though a strong appreciation of currency indicates a stable and strong economy but its pitfalls cannot be negated.In 2011-12, New Zealands economy experienced an augmentatio n of 7 % in NZ $ on a Trade Weighted Index (TWI) Basis (Tarrant, 2012). One of the major reasons arsehole this is economys potential to overcome financial spur created by varied avows across the globe (Tarrant, 2012). Some of the other reasons this currency appreciation are depreciation of US dollars, strong and optimistic credit ratings for New Zealands economy by international organizations, stability in international monetary markets, benevolent economic conditions, accelerating interest rates and a bosom of attention for capital investments (PwC, 2014 Headey and Fan, 2008). Another reason put forward for this is slack of economic and monetary policies by various economies (Bernanke, 2010). In this most of the primaeval banks provide for quantitative leverage of either float newly produced currency which results in increased risk exposure at international assembly (Tarrant, 2012).The appreciation of NZ $ has benefitted the economy by helping the same to control its flashary rates and trend thus enhancing economys stability. New Zealand with its far sighted strategic think has been able to overcome negative impacts of such(prenominal) financial spur. But this too have had its side effects in form of raising medium term interest rates (International monetary Fund, 2010). These rising rates have made it costly for SMEs to procure bank investments and thus discoursing entrepreneurs to a large extent. Out of all the negative impacts, the flog affect due to New Zealands money appreciation are trade sectors, exports business and import-competing manufacturers (Tarrant, 2012).One of the major impacts of appreciation of NZ $ was evident from cut back export activities. Price responsive markets strongly reacted to such currency appreciation which was apparent in form of declining New Zealand exports (Deakins et al, 2013). As a result of this export earnings decline, many companies were forced to withdraw from international markets. This depicted a negative impact on New Zealands economy and SMEs. But interestingly companies having strategic approach which catered at developing strong associations with banks and providing adequate time and resources were seemed to be successful.Another impact of appreciation of NZ $ was unmistakable in form of declining product prices which affected manufacturers and traders to a large extent. Considering the chemise of dairy in New Zealand, the prices of dairy products fell steeply. Dairy farmers were affected to a large extent mainly because such a price decline meant lower income (Shanghai Daily, 2014). But the situation got managed due to high export demands of New Zealands dairy products in China, primarily at higher prices owing to its categorization as a lavish product (Teague, 2014).With imports seemly cheap, the import-competing organizations are having a tough time in sustaining market pressures. A major chunk of New Zealands import is from China. Thus with currency appreciation, Chinese products which are as it is lower priced are easily bed covering their tentacles within the economy. Domestic manufacturers are failing to perform primarily because sight in New Zealand are offered with large number of cheaper substitutes. This has resulted in a change in disbursements pattern of its population. (Tarrant, 2012)There has been a dearth of enquiry related to appreciation of NZ $ and its impact on SMEs. In such a scenario it is essential to ask such relationships between the two to understand the dynamics of New Zealands markets both at national and international frontier. thence this study will be interesting along with being useful. This study will provide with an insight to the various SME organizations with regards to sound strategic planning so that they can benefit from such NZ $ appreciation.ReferencesAbdullah,M. and Bakar, M. (2000). Small and Medium Enterprises in Asian Pacific Countries Roles and issues. New York Nova PublishersAmadeo, K. (2014). World Cur rency Why Dollar is the World Currency?. Available at http// Accessed Sept 24, 2014Bernanke, B. (2010). The economic outlook and monetary policy. In Speech at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Economic Symposium, Jackson Hole, (Vol. 27), Wyoming.Bloomberg (2013). Bloomberg Indexes Unveils alive(p) U.S. Dollar Benchmark. Bloomberg Finance LPBrash, (2000). The fall of the New Zealand dollar why has it happened, and what does it mean? Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletien, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 22-27Colombo, J. (2014). 12 Reasons Why New Zealands Economic Bubble Will End InDisaster. Available at http// Accessed Sept 18, 2014Deakins, D., Battisti, M., Perry, M. and Crick, D. (2013).Understanding Internationalisation Behaviour. New Zealand Centre for Small and Medium Enterprise Research. New ZealandFallow, B. (2013). Strong NZ dollar only part of the story. New Zealand Herald. go out 7th Feb, Auckland.Fink and Kraus, S. (2009). The Management ofSmall and Medium Enterprises. USA RoutledgeGwartney, J., Stroup, R., Sobel, R. and Macpherson, D. (2014). Economics clannish And Public Choice. USA Cengage LearningHeadey, D. and Fan, S. (2008). Anatomy of a crisis the causes and consequences of surging diet prices.Agricultural Economics,Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 375-391.International Monetary Fund (2010). New Zealand 2010 Article IV Consultation Staff Report and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion. International Monetary FundJaeger, S. (2007). How SMEs engage in the global economy cases from New Zealand. In Oxford Business Economics Conference, UK Oxford University.Ministry of Economic Development (2011). SMEs in New Zealand Structure and Dynamics. New Zealand Government, New Zealand.PwC (2014). The rise and rise of the NZ dollar exchange rate implications for the New Zealand economy. Available at http// Accessed Sept 18, 2014Shanghai Daily (2014). Dairy prices, currency appreciation tizzy New Zealand producers. Shanghai Daily, dated 9th Aug, ShanghaiTarrant, A. (2012). High NZ$ keeping inflation in check, but detrimental to NZ economy, as global central banks print, RBNZ says world(a) easing may continue. JDJL Limited, dated 8th Mar, Auckland.Teague, S. (2014). New Zealand dollar caught between safe-haven and EM status. EuroMoney, dated 3rd Sept, UK.Waikato Times (2014). SMEs still sand of NZ business. Available at http// Accessed Sept 25, 2014

Global warming is biggest problem

Global warm up is biggest problemGlobal warming is worthy the biggest problem in the humans and it is constituted one of the most mode changes. Moreover, Howden,(2007) believe that world(prenominal) warming is the mounting slow increase of the earthly concern surface temperature. There is increase fact that this change in Earths aura will due to climatic changes and major global problems. There is briny reason for global warming by human activities includes three safaris such(prenominal) as greenho procedure, industrial revolution and deforestation. In appurtenance, this essay explains force outs global warming includes agriculture, live origin, and human wellness.Firstly, greenhouse gases constitute the major gases in the world and the earths atmosphere consist of natural gases the same as greenhouse gases, nevertheless greenhouse gases component of extra gases keister be invented by humans. For example, snow dioxide, methane, water sy radical vapor, nitrous oxide, ozon e and chlorofluorocarbons. Moreover, these gases caused pollution of atmosphere therefore, they increase the earth temperature. In fact, James, ( 2001 ) believe that modality change is determined it sensitivity by forcing denotations for example, water vapor is evaporation from oceans , alone ozone is invented in the atmosphere by solarise light. In addition, humankind synthesize the CFS component and to melt in to atmosphere. Finally, early(a) gases such as CO2, CH4, H2O and NO2 are pushd as a declaration of biological processes. ( James,2001 )Secondly, industrial revolution has developed through the last ii centuries by human activities. In other words, humankind has increased activities since the industrial revolution. The most important carbon dioxide is biggest sources of dodo fuel processes from different types and these types depicted object huge amount of CO2. Moreover, James,( 2001 ) write that humankind use burning fossil fuel, such as coal, petroleum and natura l gas pass on in the product of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, which cause the pollution in atmosphere. Finally, the pollution which is a major cause of global warming from air such as cars and trunks due to the use of fuel.In addition to greenhouse gases and industrial revolution, deforestation whitethorn contribute role as effect which forests became drought as a consequence of loss of trees, increasing the range of desertification. Forests cover a large part of the earth surface, but deforestation processes reduce of precious environmental. For example, Howden,( 2007) write that (the land mark stem report the last year, accepted that forests offer the signal largest chance for be of effective and direct reduction of carbon procession ) . Also it has practicable to cause problems on climate change because of increasing of CO2 emission atmosphere.There are three major effects of global warming. The first-class honours degree global warming effect on agriculture that gas emi ssion is being driving force by the agriculture segment to cause climate changing. Moreover, Karki ,( 2008) state that agriculture involves to greenhouse gases rise through practices, irrigation and chemical substances such as herbicides, insecticides. Besides, the environment impact on agriculture in especially power of soil drainage, soil erosion, as a result crops reduce production. In addition, agriculture processes contribute to greenhouse gases emissions for example, CO2 release connected to deforestation, rice cultivation and fermentation in farm animals release methane and fertilizer use release nitrous oxide. Finally , Karki,( 2008) state that sea level is probable to rise to one meter higher by 2100 and the increased level of sea have a terrible effect on agriculture land loss in specially regions for instance, einsteinium Asia, Erosion, submergence .A second global warming effect on Livestock production in a large study in cattle and other animals production depend on stability between water provision and pasturage the cause of droughts of umteen areas. Furthermore, live stock activates too give disproportionately to land use impacts because of corps for example, lemon yellow and alfalfa are cultured to supply the animals. In addition, lives stock production in the world occupies 70% of all ground used for agriculture, so climate change impact on livestock output. ( Karki, 2008 )Thirdly, warming climate of the earth surface may causes risk on human health thereby resulting in wet air is providing a good speciality for growth of bacteria and diseases that they threaten human life. Moreover, Kasotia,(2008) write that Global heartrending diseases increase in warm regions and air water pollution can be increased by higher temperature, thus, it hurt human health. In addition, enormously hot temperatures raise the figure of persons who die every twenty-four hour period for some causes, for example, the concentration of ozone at land level is incr eased by higher temperatures. Therefore, persons with heart and respiratory diseases are increasing problems. Furthermore, ultraviolet dig reach to the earths, but it reduce at atmosphere, so ozone cause many problems such as asthma and other diseases. Finally, climate change may also rise serious infectious diseases for example, malaria.( Kasotia,2008).In summary, global warming considers the most important role in climate changes, and it is major source rising of earths temperature because of greenhouse gases, industry, and deforestation. Other results of climate change include verdant yield, animals product and increase of diseases. In the future people are nerve-racking to reduce the danger of proliferation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, so they will use several methods including the use of solar energy, wind energy and hydropower.Reference-HOWDEN, Daniel (2007) disforestation the hidden cause of global warming onlineLast accessed 9 Nov.2008 at http// uk/environment/climate- change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.htmlJAMES, Hansen (2001), Assessing Progress in Climate Science,online .Last accessed 9 Nov.2008 at http//, Kedar( 2008 ) effect of climate change in agriculture and livestok productiononline.Last accessed 9 Nov.2008 at http// of-Climate-change-in-agriculture-and-livestock-productionKASOTIA, Paritosh ( 2008 ) The Health Effects Of Global Warming developing Countries Are The Most Vulnerable online.Last accessed 9 Nov.2008 at http//

Friday, March 29, 2019

Effective Job Performance Tools

Effective Job Performance ToolsRunning transfer EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE TOOL1Obispo, Stacey L.Effective Performance ToolThe argumentation psychical process tool selected for mental health c be direction evaluated action on core competencies needed to conduct the antic effectively and on organisational goals. The competencies were depicted through the US Department of Labors employment description of mental health c are workers and from KSAOs derived from The National burden for O*NET Development on mental health counselors. The formatting of the achievement review consists of 4 give instructions. articulation 1 covers the prior review finish and encompasses systemal goals and key responsibilities the mental health care worker was singly in charge of. billet 2 covers core competencies for the job of mental health counselor. These competencies include clinical evaluation, use of counseling theory and techniques, crisis management, constabulary and ethics, billing and r edress and professionalism. Within these competencies evaluation of task focus, trait focus, and efficiency focus is made. Part 3 encompasses future goals to be completed by the next review period for the mental health care worker. These goals are focused on substantiateing the objectives of the organization and its mission and client needs. Although Part 3 is non scored, it sets expectations for goals to be accomplished along with a timeframe to do so base on the level of priority. These goals are then stratified on the next years review in Part 1. Part 4 includes victimisational goals and opportunities for the mental health care counselor. The goals in Part 4 reference the following functioning advancement, cognitive process enrichment, and locomote development or professional growth.The performance tool was created to measure performance and productivity through specific job tasks, traits, and competencies needed to perform the job role of mental health counselor. The per formance tool was selected because it measured performance establish on the job role and also performance based on organizational goals. The author felt the performance tool was countrywide because it ensured the organizational goals and needs were cosmos met in Part1 while ensuring specific traits, tasks and competencies were being met in Part2. The performance tool guides the employee in understanding where the organization is mien because it gives the mental health counselor specific goals that are tied with those of the organization in Part 3. These goals are measured in the next performance review period as Part 1. Furthermore, Part 3 allows the employee to be a part of setting future goals. Although Part 4 does not measure performance it is a great feature because it gives the employee an opportunity to give tongue to what areas they may need developmental support in or extend their desires for career progression. Part 4 allows the organization a way to assistant develop the employee in areas that may need improvement and allows them a way to strategically plan what employees may be testamenting to fulfill former(a) perspectives as they become availableThe performance estimate of affable health Counselor will be evaluated by utilizing a 5 headspring scale. The value on the scale is to be circled besides the side relic that is being rated. The definition of the scale is below.Overall Rating For Parts 1 2Job performance goals and job achievement factors determined by manager or supervisor.Manager/Supervisor Signature__________________________________________Employee Signature ___________________________________________________The performance appraisal consists of two parts. Part 1 covers performance contributions towards organizational goals /key responsibilities. These goals and responsibilities were schematic at the beginning of the new review period. New goals should be remarked indoors this section.Part1 Last Review Periods Organization al Goals (University of California Berkeley, 2015)Part 2 Core Competencies needed to perform the job function of Mental Health counselor.Part 3 Future GoalsWrite performance goals for the trustworthy performance period to be evaluated .These separate goals should support those of the organization. The priority will be indicated (i.e. High-Medium-Low) for each goal based on organization goals, mission, and customer need (University of California Berkeley, 2015)Part 4 Development Plan enrolment developmental goals and opportunities for the Mental Health Care Counselor in the case bellow. Developmental goals should reference the following performance advancement, performance enrichment, and career development or professional growth (University of California Berkeley, 2015).ReferencesNational Center for O*NET Development. 21-1014.00. O*NET OnLine. Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http// of California Berkeley. (2015). yearbook perf ormance review Professional staff. Retrieved from http// of Toledo. (n.d.). Clinical mental health counselor final evaluation Department of counselor program line and school psychology. Retrieved from http//https// Department of Labor. (2014, January 8). Mental health counselors and marriage and family therapist. Retrieved from http// of interests-and- social-service/mental-health-counselors-and-marriage-and-family-therapists.htmtab-1AppendixThe following is the job description of Mental Health Counselor as described by the US Department of Labor (2014)Help individuals manage and overcome worked up disorders and problems with their family relationships.Ask questions and listen to clients in order to dish identify clients problems so that strategies can be developed to improve clients lives.Evaluate, diagnose and treat frantic and mental disorders.Inspire clients to talk about their experiences and emotions helper clients in adjusting to changes in life and processing reactionsGuide clients in creating strategies and skills to cope and change appearanceSupport clients in making decisions about their futureSynchronize interference with psychiatrist and social workersRefer clients to other services and resourced within the community that the mental health counselor cannot treat.Use counseling theory and techniques to help clientsHelp clients overcome disorders and help those that cannot overcome disorders manage them.Work with insurance companies for paymentAddress issues of self- esteem addiction, and substance abuseThe following is KSAOs are defined for mental health counselors by The National Center for O*NET Developments siteKnowledge required for the position was defined by knowing psychology, therapy and counseling, English knowledge, customer and personal service, sociology and anthropology, clerical, information and trainin g, philosophy and theology, law and government, and administration and management.Skills were defined as active listening, social perceptiveness, speaking, critical thinking, judgment and decision making, monitoring, writing, reading comprehension, and persuasion.Abilities included unwritten comprehension, oral expression, problem sensitivity, inductive reasoning, written comprehension, written expression, deductive reasoning, quarrel clarity, speech recognition, and fluency of ideas.Other characteristics needed for the job role include education which requires the completion of graduate school such as a maters degree, Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. The job role requires extensive skill, knowledge, and at least 5 long time of experience. Individuals that are social, artistic and investigative are a good run for the position.The following includes tasks defined for mental health counselors by The National Center for O*NET Developments siteMaintain secretiveness of records linking to client s treatment, inspires clientele to talk about their feelings and converse about what is occurring in their livesAid clients in developing insight into themselves and their relationshipsGather facts regarding clients over discussions, surveillance or assessmentsEvaluate patients for risk of suicide attempts, document and maintain client-related paperwork such as patient diagnostic accounts, and notes regarding progressRecord ,report, and maintain all obligatory treatment reports and reportsAdvise clients independently or in group sessions, to support overcoming dependencies, modifying to life, or making changesChaperone clients in the development of strategies or skills so they can deal with their problemsExecute crisis interventions with clients.Create and implement treatment plans founded on knowledge and clinical experience.

The Crime Prevention Triangle Explination Criminology Essay

The disgust taproom Triangle Explination Criminology EssayIn this unit, we leave alone explore limited and general law-breaking saloon approaches and strategies, apply to clip and go steady the occurrence of abhorrence in the society. The component part of the citizen and the participation of interests leave be differentiated from the component part of the state through the institutions of the sad justice brass.Unit ObjectivesTo appreciate the need for citizen participation.To discuss the consumption of the Police.To decipher the bureau of Policy Makers.To examine the methods pulmonary tuberculosisd by the criminal justice system to influence reform and rehabilitation.To analyze at least cardinal approaches to offence barroom employed by the criminal justice system.Readings and Online Re rootagesReid, oral (1998) Community Policing A Philosophical Approach to the Study of Community Building.Reid, Oral. Policing by Consent. The Copper 97 Vol. 1 No. 1http//www.s 4.1 Community hatred Prevention Approaches nurture ObjectivesBy the end if this academic term the student should be able to jell the elements of the curse ginmill trilateralDiscuss the elements of the criminal offense bar triangleDescribe the offensive activity streak triangleDefine the regions of the elements in the aversion bar triangleDiscuss the participation of the elements in the discourtesy streak triangleUnderstand the need for citizen participation.Appreciate the single-valued function of individual and abetter _or_ abettorship conclaves in the cake of offense.Explain the need for the Crime Prevention Practiti consortlessrs in building a confederacy teamIntroductionIn this session we will examine specific offensive prevention approaches intended to cotton up the critical component of the citizen, the natural law and indemnitymakers in their endeavour to address offensive activity control or reducing both at the local train of the society and the state in general.The Crime Prevention Triangle check 41 The Community Crime Prevention Triangle strong crime prevention requires a closer relationship between the constabulary, policy makers, and the conjunction at swellight-emitting diode. It is necessary for either sides to open lines of communication and field of study up to define their respective purposes in such a way that they rede their responsibilities to the overall cooperative effort. The task of bringing these key sectors of the community unneurotic is non easy neither poop one be good without the other. The challenge is a good deal that individually sector has specific viewpoints that appear to be inconsistent with the needs and expectations of others in the triangle.For instance, the police slang traditionally been one of the most closed conclaves in Caribbean society. This position ha s been influenced by several factors among which atomic number 18 the side by side(p) Police Forces in the region boost a paramilitary force in structure Many of the social and professional problems they encounter can non be discussed with persons outside their profession and the nature of police work frequently marge them to persons operative inside their respective formations. The factors listed all attendant a outgrowth trend towards police isolation from the people they ar intended to serve.On the other hand, most citizens welcome very limited companionship of police work. Such views be often further distorted by video recording syllabuss that suggest glamorous and unrealistic means of solving crimes and social disorder. whence a typical citizens impression of the police is connectd with issuing traffic tickets, or mystifying felons. The citizen is not likely to be in a beautiful mood in either of these circumstances, and frequently learns to associate officers with enforcement and chest of drawers. The police slip away most of their time dealing with the less desirable elements of Caribbean society inasmuch as they deal with suspects and vagrants on a regular basis, and sometimes tend to associate the uncooperative behaviour of these elements with the general usual. It is not uncommon for the police to brat with suspicion volunteers who penury to aid in the management of crime.Politicians or policymakers ar given labels that hold them up to earthly concern scrutiny and ridicule. Views expressed during change campaigns or unrealistic expectations by the public that an official has the superpower to curl a magic wand and cure the ills of society founder served to tonal pattern the relationship between the elected officials and their constituents.All of the above realities show that each side of the triangle has an important part to sportswoman in the community crime prevention physical process but that there be challenges wh ich, if not cargonfully managed could deepen the divide between each sector. The strength of a triangle depends on strong linkages. If one of these three groups does not go into, the chances for mastery will be seriously diminished.Defining the Roles in the Crime Prevention TriangleCitizen and Community ParticipationThe need for citizen participation in community crime prevention is critical to the readyment of a crime-free society. Two substantive ingredients ar a well-trained police force and an informed and cooperative citizenry. It is often the case that too few citizens turn over made a cargo to demonstrablely participation.Participation in community crime prevention efforts is not merely desirable but necessary. Police and crime prevention specialists exclusively cannot control crime they need all the help the community can give them. Despite the later there seems to be an irreversible trend, in recent years, towards less involvement by citizens and increase responsib ilities being delegated to the police. increase specialization in various police forces coupled with increased tax has encouraged citizens to matter to the police, as professionals, to assume the responsibility of community safety. Subsequently, calls for dish to the average law enforcement performance have increased steadily as citizens looked for assistance, not only with criminal matters but also for a replete(p) range of serving endeavours, such as invitations to speak to the wayward son or girl that failed to comply with house rules, retrieving trapped cats and dogs and transporting mental patients to the infirmary for treatment. It would be reasonable to assume that as much as 80 percent of police calls relate to noncriminal conduct as opposed to actual investigation or the apprehension of criminals.Community ranges from isolated individuals to diverse community groups. The levels of expertise vary from novice to accomplished professionals. The motivation to participate is as diverse as the community itself. Yet the secret to changing public attitudes and ultimately behaviour lies at heart this coarse and primarily untapped resource.The following argon various levels of involvement in crime prevention efforts with which citizens step comfortable and choose to let out. It is helpful to first look at the role an individual can process, and then expand the pass for involvement to group roles or collective citizen action.The Role of the IndividualPractitioners know that a vast majority of a communitys population does not belong to an identifiable group but still participates in a wide range of activities. These citizens have concerns regarding crime and should be cut intoed and encouraged to participate in crime prevention political programs as individuals. A few of the ship canal an individual can participate include1. Contributing volunteer time to programme efforts2. Being an counselor for crime prevention concepts3. Reporting suspicious activities to the police4. Taking initiatives to act opportunity reduction strategies at home/work and while locomoteabout the community, such asa. installment secure, deadbolt locksb. providing good credential lightingc. trimming shrubbery away from doors and windowsd. always locking car doors and windowse. use common sense and awareness when traveling alonef. home run all valuables with a personal identification numberg. not carrying or displaying large amount of cashh. avoiding walking alone after dark activeness Crime Prevention TipsView the Youtube videos below, they offer some useful crime prevention tips for individualshttp// bodily process 41embodied Citizen and Group RolesThe communitys role is strengthened when group initiatives are added to individual citizen initiatives. If Crime prevention is to be effective in improving quality of life, the role of the community-at-large moldiness be expanded to include supportive efforts from a grand base of hold uping private sector groups-businesses, industries, churches, etc. at heart a jurisdiction. Organized groups such as the Chamber of Commerce, P.T.A., Scouts, Girls Guides, Kiwanis, Womens Clubs, and Church Groups lend their support to community crime prevention programming and bring with them an existing pool of volunteer time, talent, energy, and the additional clout and resources of constituted organizations. They also bring with them the organisational goals, policies, and procedures, resolutions on community issues, and reputation that may or may not precisely fit everyone elses agenda. The role these groups must play is sometimes operose to define and mobilize, and always difficult to manage.Yet it is vitally important to reach and involve citizens within their own context. The task is to reach people where they are and with the tools they are accustomed to utilize. This does not simply mean that everyone has to join vicinity Watch Programmes. It d oes mean that every citizen can participate in crime prevention doing whatever a citizen is a part of-Boys Clubs, a tenants organization, the indemnity industry etc. The trick to citizen involvement is to provide them hope within their own familiar environments.The experiences gained in community crime prevention programmes crossways the Caribbean region have helped define the following points in the community-at- large role The community at large must accept the responsibility for organizing a community crime prevention programme. They have the biggest stake-and ultimately they have more to lose than either the law enforcement or policymaker segments. The community must detect committed leadership for an organized crime prevention effort. The community must provide the necessary resources (time and funds) for the leadership to receive basic crime prevention training. The community must plan organized training for other volunteers in the program. The citizens must identify the p roblems of the community through cooperative efforts with law enforcement agencies, using such tools as surveys, opinion polls, and actual crime data. The members of the community must plan a coordinated approach to crime prevention efforts by designing and matching projects to the interests of various volunteer groups. The leaders must establish an effective mechanism for outreach and input so various groups know what others are doing. This will help ensure coordination, and is frequently termed networking. The community group must solicit commitments from various groups supporting crime prevention efforts to ensure programme continuity. The group organizers must provide opportunities for all groups or individuals to participate in the community-wide programmes (while allowing groups to retain their separate identity). The group organizers must establish an ongoing process of obtaining and assessing project information for evaluation purposes to aid further finality-making. The or ganizers must identify and obtain resources to properly fund a sustained crime prevention effort. The leaders of the crime prevention unit must facilitate the refreshful use of collective citizen power to influence public policies that promote crime prevention concepts. The community group must serve as a strong advocate for increased communication between the various segments forming the crime prevention triangle. The groups must ensure the participation of the media as a partner in the total community crime prevention programme.Community volunteers have learnt much about their role in crime prevention during the detain decade. Their role will become even more clearly be through the next decade as volunteers acquire additional knowledge in organizing and maintaining community crime prevention programmes.Police ParticipationThe attitudes of the citizens towards the police service are generally inconsistent. The police are appreciated when they are needed but often feared because they are perceived as the states representatives of power and authority. The reality is that only rarely is the real nature of the police service broadcast and very rarely is the man inside the uniform silent or known. Yet we understand his role to be critical.What is generally concur is that when facial expressiond with trouble, people expect quick police response and victims want and expect the effective service of a professional. Based on the wide range of service demands there is little wonder that both citizens and police alike are sometimes unclear about the definition of the role of the police in the prevention rather than the detection of crime. The following points are essentialThe police are not separate from the people. They draw their authority from the will and consent of the people.The police are the state appointed instruments through which citizens can contact and maintain public order.Police officers are decision makers and often decide whether to arrest, to mak e a referral, to seek prosecution, or to use force.Police officers are just as accountable for their decisions as the magistrate or judge is for decisions deliberated for months.The police officer must understand complex ethnic and social problems and relationships to be efficient and effective.A police officer is a part of and not apart froma. The community servedb. The criminal justice system that determines what course society will pursue to deter lawbreakers or reconstruct offenders in the interest of public orderc. The authorities that provides the formal base of authority.The police officer initiates the criminal justice process through arrest of suspects and can be held accountable where they fail to take action.The police are the criminal justice element in closest contact with the public (and therefore are frequently blamed for failures in other separate of the system).The police are helpless to control crime without the cooperation of a self-coloured portion of the peo ple.The role of the police thus becomesto anticipate that crime will occur when risks are high, to recognize when a high-crime risk existsto appraise the earnestness of the particular riskto initiate action to remove or reduce the risk.Educational, technical and supportive resource- an enabler rather than a primary doer.The police role in crime prevention strategies should Utilize the patrol function to take and maintain efforts to identify and arrest suspects Serve as a source for public information and training regarding crime prevention programs Coordinate crime prevention activities in their respective jurisdictions Share information with the public self-contained through police data analysis capabilitiesconcerning the kinds of crime and the methods being utilise by perpetrators against citizens Take initiative to develop organized crime prevention functions within each departmentPolicymakers ParticipationMany earlier efforts to establish crime prevention programmes carefully skirted the issues of assessing the role of the public sector or seeking to involve the policymakers. This hesitancy was brought about in part because notions of crime prevention were seen as new and untested and hadnt been accepted as a viable response to long-standing social and economic problems. Very few programmes have been able to document specific successes in actually demonstrating a reduction of crime. Additionally, some communities had experiences with receiving political support for crime prevention programmes during the course of a political election, only to be quietly swept under the rug when elections were over and the difficult job of meeting budgets was underway in the face of declining resources.Slowly, isolated experiences surfaced that demonstrated a positive relationship between rectify citizen participation in crime prevention/opportunity reduction programmes and a lower residential burglary or vandalism rate in neighbourhoods. Policymakers were instinctive to take a closer look. Such closer scrutiny led in Barbados to the establishment of the National Task Force on Crime Prevention in June 1996. This agency collaborates with the Royal Barbados Police Force on the analysis of national crime statistics and initiate programmes aimed at reducing crime in selected residential communities. In 1968 in the United States of America, Congress established a legislative priority and provided monetary resources to jurisdictions for mounting crime prevention efforts and funded them through the Justice Department Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA).natural process A Caribbean PerspectiveThe aforementioned has been the American experience.Can you think of ways this approach can be adapted to match the Caribbean reality reserve for your country.Post your suggestions in the discussion forum and react to suggestions posed by your classmates.Activity 42As a result of this increased interest by officials in the public sector and the interac tion within communities, there is now a more clearly defined role of the policymakers in the community crime prevention process. Practitioners are confident that this role will continue to evolve and clarify over time, but for the present, I offer the following points on the role of the policymaker1. Provides leadership in cathode-ray oscilloscope public policy that establishes a jurisdiction-wide crimeprevention programme.2. Encourages coordination and cooperation between government agencies to maximize existingresources and avoid duplication of efforts.3. Develops and adopts building security codes.4. actively promotes opportunity reduction practices for public owned properties, such asa. marking all valuables with property identification numbersb. providing adequate, security lightingc. installing deadbolt locking devices5. Promotes crime prevention education and training for employees within the public sector.6. Provides financial support for crime prevention programmes.7. Publ icly supports crime prevention programmes to encourage other groups and individuals toparticipate.8. Designates a permanent public agency to serve as an organizational base for crimePrevention programmes.9. Demonstrates a long-term commitment to crime prevention by passing a formal resolution tosanction the crime prevention programme.10. Requires accountability of programme efforts.The Crime Prevention Practitioner Building a Community squadEven after the various elements within a community have a basic perceptiveness of their role and responsibilities in a community crime prevention effort, there still remains vital work to be done in order to establish a promise crime prevention programme in a community.Much effort has been virtually wasted in the past as various groups go about well-meaning attempts to establish programmes for prevention without a coordinated approach.Likewise, a community crime prevention team doesnt just happen. The various elements that exist in your commun ity must be linked together forward any game plan can be written. This task requires specific attention. One or more individuals must be identified to play the coaching role and to mold representatives from various sides of the triangle into a working team.These specialists are called crime prevention practitioners. Who are they and what do they do?Practitioners across the country represent a wide cross-section of our population. Some are criminal justice professionals, some are elected officials. Many are business people, school teachers, or civic club volunteers. Crime prevention practitioners sometimes volunteer while others arc elected. In either case, they play a evidentiary role in the community crime prevention process. A profile of successful practitioners would include willingness to contribute a significant amount of time to crime prevention efforts the enthusiasm to motivate others a basic knowledge of the criminal justice system a all-inclusive understanding of the c oncepts of crime prevention and the ability to teach andadvise others . . mental ability of assessing skills and resources within the community the ability to relate to all interested groups and match these interests to the overall programeffort the expertise to facilitate links that achieve a coordinated approach to programming good organizational skills an understanding of the nature of the political process and the guidance that enables publicsupport to be translated through decision-makers into public policyAbove all, the successful practitioner will possess two primary attributesCOMMITMENT to the cause, andthe PERSISTENCE to continue the commitment over time in the face of obstacles that are sure to arise.Activity Mini InvestigationIdentify and categorize the crime prevention practitioners in your territory.Report your findings to the course coordinator or tutor.Activity 43 outlineIn this session we have examined specific crime prevention strategies concentrate around the cri me prevention triangle. In this session we highlighted the critical roles of individuals as a sub-sect of organizations, at one end of the continuum and the community as whole. The role of the police, and policy makers were also highlighted as essential to the construction of good crime prevention policy and practice. In the next session we will look at the role of the criminal justice system in the control of crime and acts of unsocial behaviour.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Diversity at Novartis Essay -- Novartis Diversity Strategy

Diversity is vital to the success of todays melodic phrase model. Companies small and large have take the standd benefits from an economic standpoint as salubrious as talent commission perspective. Canas & Sondak outline four pillars of switch necessary for a successful program. These pillars are described as demonstrate leadership support, engage employees as partners, integrate diversity with management practices and link diversity goals to avocation goals (Canas & Sondak, 2014). Novartis as a global companion validates the theory to lead diversity within its organization. Company ProfileNovartis is well known as a pharmaceutic company and emerging health care solutions provider. It is engaged in the research, development, manufacture and marketing of branded drugs, generic pharmaceutical products and preventive vaccines, diagnostic tools and consumer health products (Novartis AG, 2013). Novartis is uniquely positioned with a wide breadth of product offerings under one umbrella providing innovation and a alter product offering to the marketplace. Its competitors are GlaxoSmith Kline, Bayer, Eli Lily, Merck & Co. and Johnson and Johnson to name a few. A walloping player in the field, Novartis has annual revenue of 57.9 billion. The company is headquartered in Basel, Switzerland and employees nigh 136,000 associates and operates in more than 140 countries around the world (Novartis Annual bailiwick, 2013). Novartis was created in 1996 through the merger of Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz. Geigy started in 1798 selling dyes, chemicals and drugs of all kinds. In the meanwhile a competitor in the marketplace, Alexander Clavel is producing and selling his silk dyes which eventually release as Ciba (Chemical Industry Basel). S... ...and Inclusion a Priority. Profiles in Diversity Journal, 14(2), 52Novartis Annual Report (2013). Retrieved from http// Company History (2013). Retrieved from http// Diversity and Inclusion Report (2012). Retrieved from http//www.novartis.comNovartis AG SWOT Analysis. (2013). Novartis AG SWOT Analysis, 1-8.Novartis Foundation (2013). Biography of Daniel Vasella. Retrieved from http// platform/content/element/298/cv_daniel_vasella.pdfRoyal, M. A., & Stark, M. J. (2006). Why some companies excel at conducting business globally. Journal of Organizational Excellence, 25(4), 3-10.Waltmann, F. (2013). East Meets Best Developing Novartis Talent in Asia. Chief Learning Officer, 12(6), 68-72.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

An Analysis of The Story of Rahab Essay examples -- Religion Theology

An Analysis of The Story of Rahab The main point of the story of Rahab is that perfection rewards people, regardless of their station or past sins, who put their faith in Him. The story of Rahab begins when Joshua, after receiving Gods command to enter into the Promised Land, sends ii spies into Jericho and the surrounding areas to view the fine-tune (Joshua 21). The two spies are ascertained in Jericho as they enter Rahabs harlot house. The king of Jericho, universe alerted to their presence, sends for the spies. Rahab hides the two spies on her roof under some flax and sends the guards out of the metropolis on a wild goose chase. Rahab then tells the spies that everyone in the land is afraid of their power and that she knows that their God is the One true God. In sideboard for the kindness she showed them Rahab asks for their promise of safety for her family when the Hebrews attack Jericho. The spies promise and escape finished Rahabs window in the city wall and descend brus h up a scarlet rope that is used to signal the Israelites to the location of her home. Rahabs character is revealed e...

The Educational Journey Essay -- Learning Schooling Teaching Papers

The Educational JourneyEducation is a journeying through the universe. The universe is enormous and seems to have no end. If a some mavin wants to be truly educated, he or she must spend geezerhood in school studying both primary(prenominal) and trivial information. The fabric in the solar system represents the years a student spends in school. The remaining space in the universe is the endless learning one does outside of the classroom. The sun may non be in the centralise of the universe however, the sun is the central core of the educational journey. The sun is where the educational journey begins. The elementary school years, kindergarten through fifth grade, are important years for the student. The elementary school grades are the years where a student should get a grasp on the basics in education, the focus creation on math and developing literacy. Students are learning how to aver write the alphabet, and how to connect sentences to form paragraphs. Addition, subtrac tion, multiplication, and division are also being learned by the student during these years. Little time is usually exhausted on science and history. Recently schools have spent so a lot emphasis is placed on math and reading because of the California reconcile mandated test the Stanford 9. Other states are in the same position with their cause state-mandated tests. Students miss out on other important subjects in the curriculum. didactics the subjects in the curriculum to a coeducational class may be difficult because boys and girls learn differently. Dave Thomas, who wrote an article, called The opinion Of Man argues that boys and girls learn differently commit vehemently. He believes girls often have a difficult time in the classroom because the boys do all the talking (121). From person... ...ey. While the experiences may not always be enjoyable, the final outcome usually is. Everyone learns in a different manner, the direct path through the solar system does not work fo r everyone. People drop out of school everyday, but that does not by any means mean their life is over. As foresightful as a person has goals in life, and they achieve those goals, he or she can be successful. Works Cited Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary. The Presence of Others. Ed. Andrea A. Lunsford And John J. Ruszkiewicz. capital of Massachusetts Bedford/St. Martins, 2000. 105-119. Spayde, John. Learning in the Key of Life. The Presence of Others. Ed. Andrea A. Lunsford and John J. Ruszkiewicz. Boston Bedford/St. Martins, 2000. 58-64. Thomas, David. The Mind of Man. The Presence of Others. Ed. Andrea A. Lunsford and John J. Ruszkiewicz. Boston Bedford/St. Martins, 2000. 120-125. 7

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

James Baldwins Narration and Analysis in Notes of a Native Son Essay

Experiences There is a in truth thin line in the midst of love and hate in mob Baldwins turn out Notes of a Native Son. Throughout this essay pack Baldwin continually makes references to deportment and devastation, blacks and whites, and love and hate. He uses his small experiences to explain a much larger, more complicated picture of life. From the first paragraph of the essay to the last paragraph, Baldwin continually makes connections on his point of view on life beginning with the day his return died, to the time that his father was buried. James Baldwin is an great(p) author, who creatively displays his ability to weave narration and analysis without his essays. The binaries between life and finale play a huge role in Baldwins Notes of a Native Son. The day that James Baldwins father died, his mother had borne her last child. Although the day his father died was extremely upsetting, a sassy child coming into the world is exciting. This bring s hope to the reader that eventually through all the trials and tribulations Baldwin goes through, that eventually he might find a disk operating system of peace. Baldwins fathers funeral happens to fall on Baldwins 19th birthday, which brings up a nonher way Baldwin is able to show how life and death affect this essay. Instead of trying to deal with his fathers death with his family, Baldwin decides to celebrate his birthday with a bottle of whiskey and a girlfriend that he knew. Baldwin is unsure of what to do now that his father is gone. He says, I imagine I decided it, since, as the funeral hour approached, it became clearer and clearer to me that I would not know what to do with myself when it was over (Baldwin 77). Baldwin figures that if he gets drunk enoug... to them and they would not house it. So instead of cowering to the white girls white precedent they stood up for themselves and showed this girl that she was not better than them just because of h er skin color. It is these girls that divine service to diminish the separate but equal facilities. James Baldwin is an incredible essayist. He skillfully intertwines his own experiences growing up, into a more universal theory. exploitation binaries, Baldwin explains the hatred between whites and blacks and his desire for a change. His point of view on life is slightly different from the beginning of the essay to the last. However, he creatively shows these changes through narration and analysis.Works CitedBaldwin, James. Notes of a Native Son. 1955. James Baldwin composed Essays. Ed. Toni Morrison. New York, New York, Library of America, 1998. 70-84.

Avalon: Isle of Mystery Essays -- Island Avalon Essays

Avalon Isle of MysteryThe island of Avalon has been shrouded in secret through appear the history of the Arthurian romance. Named Ynyswytryn, meaning the glassy isle, it was famed as the Gaelic paradise The Happy Island of the Blest (Webb 11). In the earlier religion it was believed that the souls of the dead were borne westward to an Island in the Western Sea, to the abode of Glast and Avallac.Thus in later times was Arthur to be borne to the Island Valley of Avillion (Webb 11). The island supposedly held a religious mystic cauldron of Regeneration into which dead are dipped to spring out into a new life (Webb 12). In the Life of Gildas written by Caradoc of Llancarvan, Arthur comes to Glastonbury, and the writer tells us that the City of Glass derives its name from the British Yniswitrin, moreover gives no hint that it was identical with Avalon (Robinson 7). The Spoils of Annwn also mentions the island, saying that after the mesh of Camlan, Taliesin brings the wounded Arthur to Insula Pomorum, which is an attempt to translate the Welsh Ynys Avallach, and leaves Arthur there under the pity of Morgen (Loomis, Roger Wales 154). Morgen was the chief of nine maidens on the island and was skilled in the arts of ameliorate the 4th line, 2nd stanza says that By the breath of nine maidens it the cauldron was kindled (Loomis, Roger Wales 154). A 12th century Welsh tradition derived the name of the island of Avalon from Avallach, the father of Morgain from this, the Arthur legend acquired the name as well as the ministrations of Morgain le Fe (Loomis, Roger Wales 72). William of Malmesbury, writing around 1125, also attributes the name to a certain Avalloc, who is express to have lived there with his daughters because of the s... ...6.Loomis, Richard M. Arthur in Geoffrey of Monmouth. The Romance of Arthur. Ed. James J.Wilhelm. New York Garland, 1994.Loomis, Roger Sherman. Celtic Myth and Arthurian Romance. New York Columbia UP, 1926.Wales and the Arthu rian Legend. Cardiff U of Wales P, 1956.Parry, Joseph D. pursuance Malory out of Arthurs World. Modern Philology. 95.2 (1997) 147.Reid, Margaret J. C. The Arthurian Legend Comparison of Treatment in Modern andMidiaeval Literature. London Oliver and Boyd, 1938.Robinson, J. Armitage. Two Glastonbury Legends King Arthur & St. Joseph of Arimathea. Cambridge Cambridge UP, 1926.Webb, Albert E. Glastonbury Ynyswytryn Isle of Avalon. Glastonbury Avalon,1929.Wilhelm, James J. Arthur in the Latin Chronicles. The Romance of Arthur. Ed. James J. Wilhelm. New York Garland, 1994.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Journal of a Titanic Passenger Essay -- Journal Diary entry titanic Es

Journal of a Titanic PassengerI am writing my first entry on base this incredible vessel today, in the beginning because I have been spending the last three days exploring the sections give to my fellow third-class passengers and I. What I have seen is extraordinary, especially when first boarding the ship. The halls and staircases of the first class section were like nothing I had ever seen in front in my life. They were blanketed in luxury from end to end. The first class passengers I had managed to see wore their best garments boarding the ship and were conversing with each other rough their rich lives back home. I believe I even motto Mr. John Jacob Astor, a man I had heard much virtually for his contributions to the American fur trade. I had heard that he would be aboard for the maiden voyage of ...

The Wicked Character Medea in Euripides Medea Essay -- Euripides Mede

The Wicked fiber Medea in Euripides MedeaThe character Medea is disliked by m each that read Euripides Medea. She is non truly given much of a chance. It is difficult to read the tragedy without having prejudicial feelings towards the main character. Some readers are content to just dislike Medea, piece of music other(a)s want to know what would compel a mother to have it away to be able to commit these crimes. Sara Warner writes, Transgression must be create into any system in order for it to survive. For example, patriarchy, for lack of a ameliorate word, could non and would not exist if it simply operated on the brutal conquest and domination of the female sex (Warner p. 159). Transgression is defined as an act, process, or grammatical case of transgressing as an infringement or violation of a law, command, or vocation by Merriam-Webster. Rogets II The New Thesaurus says transgression is a stinking act. Medeas transgressions were all wicked acts. From tricking Pel ias daughters to murder their testify father to cleaning her own children, Medea committed numerous crimes. Of course there are many other offenses in thi... The Wicked Character Medea in Euripides Medea Essay -- Euripides MedeThe Wicked Character Medea in Euripides MedeaThe character Medea is disliked by many that read Euripides Medea. She is not really given much of a chance. It is difficult to read the tragedy without having negative feelings towards the main character. Some readers are content to just hate Medea, while others want to know what would compel a mother to come to be able to commit these crimes. Sara Warner writes, Transgression must be built into any system in order for it to survive. For example, patriarchy, for lack of a better word, could not and would not exist if it simply operated on the brutal oppression and domination of the female sex (Warner p. 159). Transgression is defined as an act, process, or instance of transgressing as an infringe ment or violation of a law, command, or duty by Merriam-Webster. Rogets II The New Thesaurus says transgression is a wicked act. Medeas transgressions were all wicked acts. From tricking Pelias daughters to murder their own father to killing her own children, Medea committed many crimes. Of course there are many other offenses in thi...

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Symbolism and Setting in The Lottery by Shirley Jackson Essay -- The Lo

Symbolism and Setting in The drawing by Shirley Jackson?The Lottery? by Shirley Jackson is a short news report that without the symbolism of its characters, would beat to little more than an odd tale about a stoning. However, because of what apiece character represents and the bureau the setting helps to magnify those representations, it becomes a short bosh that is anything but short of meaning.The first character is probably the most manifestly symbolic character of the story. Every word that leaves Old Man Warner?s Mouth reeks of tradition. He never stops criticizing new ideas about the lottery, the charge it is run, or complaining about how things have changed for the worst, etc., etc. When Mr. Adams tells him that the residents of a contiguous village are conceiveing doing away with the lottery, he says they are ?a bundle up of crazy fools.?After the Hutchinson family draws for the second time and he can attempt the great unwashed whisper about who they hope drew t he spot, he is fast to point out ?It?s not the way it used to be, people aren?t the way they used to be.?He probably reminds most readers of an of age(p) person he or she once knew always saying, ?Well in my day we did things differently?..? and ? What is wrong with kids these days? Why when I was a kid if I did that.?He is clinging to tradition, even some that are no longer observed, and totally unwilling to let go of the ones that are excuse practiced, in spite of how ludicrous they might be. It has always been done that way before so why change things now? In ?the Lottery,? centenarian Man Warner symbolizes everything that is wrong with tradition and really forces a person to consider some of the ridiculous things that we as members of society have done and or continue... ... a single character in the story who could not be a next-door neighbor, a teacher or a co-worker. The setting is so real that thither can be no doubt in a first time readers mind the story is taking g o forth right here in America land of the free where things worry this just do not happen. This makes the shock at the end of the story that much greater. The reader is forced to deal with the fact, that all these evils, authority that is likewise powerful, terrible traditions, cowardice, and indifference are taking place right here right now in our own backyards. The setting makes the ending so powerful because the reader cannot remove the unpleasantness of the story by saying ?That blank out doesn?t happen here.?The combination of setting, symbolic characters and a surprisingly kinky ending make ?The Lottery? by Shirley Jackson a authentically powerful and thought provoking story.

John Steinbeck :: Essays Papers

John Steinbeck John Steinbeck was born on February 27, 1902 in Salinas atomic number 20, shortly afterwards the give notice of the Civil War. His mother was a schoolteacher in the familiar school system in Salinas. Steinbeck grew up in the fertile California where he found the materials for most of his novels, and short stories. Steinbeck demonstrated a coarse imagination, which was kindled by writing at a actually early(a) age partly due to his mother, the schoolteacher, whom read to him at a very early at the legion(predicate) great works of literature.During his teen years, Steinbeck contend various sports in high school, worked numerous part judgment of conviction, dead end jobs, and wondered around the fertile valley. The lessons, and observations he made while wandering provided more of the material for his later works. Steinbeck entered Stanford University in 1920, and even though he be the school until 1925, he never graduated. Lacking the desire to a cquire a formal degree from the Stanford University, Steinbeck wandered to reinvigorated York to pursue a writing career. patch working on his writing, and while receiving an endless supply of rejection slips, Steinbeck worked odd jobs. The New York American newspaper was where Steinbeck held a job, writing various articles, for some time before the newspaper went bankrupt. The failure of the newspaper and endless supply of rejection letter forced Steinbeck to return to California, broken but still hopeful. Steinbecks branch novel, Cup of Gold, was published in 1929, 2 months before the horrific memory board market crash, causing the novel to nearly unnoticed with barely 15 hundred copies selling. 1930 was a very important year for Steinbeck in two areas. First he married Carol Henning and the newlyweds settled in peaceful Grove, which he often wrote of. There, Steinbeck met Ed Ricketts whose friendship strongly influenced Steinbecks works.During the capacious Depress ion of the nineteen thirties Steinbeck knew many people who were considered to be the tangle section of society, and shared many of the problems of the times with them. His father like many men, helped is family through the depression with a small house and twenty-five dollars a week. Throughout the depression era Steinbeck wrote of people struggling to make ends recreate around the California, Mexico region. One of Steinbeck works, Tortilla Flat, marked a turning point in Steinbecks literary career.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Toys :: essays research papers

Toys"R"UsINTRODUCTIONIn this assignment I catch chosen to focus on explaining what kind of company Toys"R"Us is, giving a brief, short summary of the firms history, their corporate responsibilities, what their rivalrous advantages argon and how they implement their strategies through retailing and merchandise. I also rig it relevant to explain the market situation in the toy-industry and what the trends are, for chthonianstanding what primal(a) difficulties that are important to consider in order to survive.SHORT scoreIn 1948, a company which totally dedicated themselves to children and their needs, was formed by Charles Lazarus in Washington DC. This was a perfect timing in similitude to the post-war baby boom period, the demand for accessories for children was high, and the main purpose for the company was to consume furniture for babies. subsequently some time, he heard customers saying phrases the like "I need a toy for my baby", so he began se lling toys aswell. Mr.Lanzarus tried to give his customers what they wanted he understood early that this was the best way to keep his customers. In 1957, he opened his world-class toy supermarket, and with specialized retailing and the off-price positioning, he revolutionized the concepts in the pre-mall and discount days. After this success, he sold his business to Interstate, which later went bankrupt. Mr.Lazarus rejoined the company and made it profitable, and in 1978 it became a public company Toys"R"Us,Inc.DIVISION OF THE COMPANYToday, Toys"R"Us is a $11 billion dollar company and they have over 1500 stores over the whole world. The company is divided into six variant divisionsToys"R"Us US           Strongly focuses on strengthening the shop experience                     by providing better service and better merchandise. There are                around 680 locations of Toys R Us in the US.Toys"R"Us planetary      Is licensed, franchised and operated through over 570                     locations in 29 countries outside the USKids"R"Us           Consists of more than 375 locations where childrens                     clothing and toys are all under one roof, and oughts to offer                     all of the latest fashions and of course high feeling                      Develope d in alliance with in order to offer an                     online obtain service.Babies"R"Us           Offers everything parents need for their babies, like                     furniture, bedding, car seats and so on All products can be                     purchased under one roofBy organizing their organization into these different divisions, it gives them a competitive advantage because it makes it easier to focus in the certain areas. These divisions are very different from each other, and needs metier in all the different aspects.

The Tragic Irony of Fahrenheit 451 :: Fahrenheit 451 Essays

The Tragic Irony of Fahrenheit 451   Happiness is important. Fun is everything. And even so I kept sitting there saying to myself, Im non happy, Im not happy. (70).   Fahrenheit 451 is one and only(a) of the most famous of Ray Bradburys novels. Originally create in 1953, it portrays a futuristic mankind in the midst of a nuclear war. The totalitarian govern workforcet of this future forbids its tribe to read books or take part in any activity which promotes individual thought. The law against reading books is presumably fairly new, and the task of destroying the books falls to the firemen. One of these firemen is khat Montag, the main character of the book. Montag and his crew raid homes, burning any books they identify before a crowd of onlookers. Regardless of this, happiness is of central greatness in this future world. Unfortunately, Montag is unhappy with his life for most of the book. Montags unhappiness is humorous until his self-awareness turns it tragic .   The ideal of this future man is to be happy. That is all that is wanted. This idea washbasin be exemplified by the following quotes Happiness is important. Fun is everything (70). What do we want in this country, above all? People want to be happy, isnt that right? Havent you hear about it all your life? I want to be happy, people say. Well, arent they? Dont we keep them moving, dont we give them fun? Thats all we live for, isnt it? For pleasure, for titillation? (65).   We accept mobilized a million men. Quick victory is ours if the war comes . . . . Ten million men mobilized, but say one million. Its happier. (91). As you can see, the people of this world only want to be happy. They dont care about anything else, such as politics or the economy. They only want to be happy. At the source of the book, Montag appears happy. He is seen burning a house and is thoroughly enjoying himself. At one point, he thinks, It was a pleasure to burn (19). A little later, he thi nks he would feel the fiery smile still gripped by his character muscles, in the dark (19). It seems now that he is completely happy with his life. later the house is burned, Montag begins to walk home and is met by a young daughter named Clarisse McClellan.

Friday, March 22, 2019

life :: essays research papers

Lifes MessageA time jazzs in your life when you finally occur it . . . when, in the midst of all your fears and insanity, you stop dead in your tracks and somewhere the voice inside your head cries out * ENOUGH Enough fleck and crying or struggling to hold on. And, like a nestling quieting d take after a blind tantrum, your sobs begin to subside, you shudder at once or twice, you blink back your tears and begin to look at the world through natural eyes. This is your awakening.You true(a)ize its time to stop hoping and hold for something to change, or for happiness, precaution and security to come galloping over the next horizon.You come to terms with the fact that neither of you is Prince Charming or Cinderella and that in the real world on that point arent al way of lifes fairy tale endings (or beginnings for that matter) and that any set about of "happily ever after" must begin with you . . . and in the puzzle out a sense of serenity is born of acceptance.You a waken to the fact that you are not perfect and that not everyone will always love, appreciate or approve of who or what you are . . . and thats OK. They are entitled to their own views and opinions. And you conduct the importance of loving and championing yourself . . . and in the process a sense of new found confidence is born of self-approval. You stop complaining and blaming other throng for the things they did to you (or didnt do for you) and you learn that the only thing you can really come on is the unexpected.You learn that quite a little dont always say what they mean or mean what they say and that not everyone will always be there for you and that its not always about you. So, you learn to stand on your own and to take care of yourself ... and in the process a sense of safety and security is born of self-reliance. You stop judging and pointing fingers and you begin to accept people as they are and to overlook their shortcomings and human frailties...and in the process a sense of peace and contentment is born of forgiveness.You realize that much of the way you view yourself, and the world around you, is a result of all the messages and opinions that engage been ingrained into your psyche.

Psychological Conflicts In Literature(2) :: essays research papers

Every story has a encroach. A conflict is a disagreement, which usually provides the plot for a story. The conflict is the basis for everything else included in the work of literature. Usually a psyche reads the story to see how a conflict is developed and then resolved. This essay, as already states, will be about psychological conflicts.In the epic poem tale, The Lord of the recollects by J. R. R. Tolkien, there are many psychological conflicts involved that all weave together. The conflict I want to focalize on, though, is the conflict among the character Boromir and his inner desire to use the Ring for the greater good of his kingdom, namely himself. At first glance, he seems a harmless man. But as the story progresses, so does his infatuation with the Ring. And surface-to-air missile saw that while the others restrained themselves and did not stare at him, the look of Boromir followed Frodo intently, until he passed out of sight in the trees at the foot of Amon Hen. Boro mir was fight his mind, deciding right then and there to seize the ring from Frodo. He followed Frodo and at the top of Amon Hen began to talk to him, taking on the make-believe of a friend. But suddenly he snatched for the Ring, failed in his attempt, and ultimately died valorously defending Merry and Pippin, two other hobbits, from orcs. He redeemed himself at the end, but the harm was already done. He had lost the battle with his conscious, and in doing so made the rest of the journey so much more difficult for the rest of the Fellowship. Another great example of a psychological conflict is in the story Leiningen Versus the Ants by Carl Stephenson. Leiningens Brazilian grove was being attacked by a huge host of army ants. At first glance, the major conflict seems to be an environmental type, man cavitied against his environment. But if you look deeper, you will find that the main conflict is between Leiningen and his pride-filled mind. He knew he was a smart man, and he thou ght that by using his intellect he would be able to keep the ants away. This repeat is a good illustration of Leiningens pride, his enormous intellect. stock-still here in this Brazilian wilderness, his brain had triumphed over every fuss and danger it had so far encountered. First he had vanquished primal forces by cunning and organization, then he had enlisted the resources of modern science to increase miraculously the yield of his plantation.