Saturday, March 30, 2019

Impact of the Appreciation of the New Zealand Dollar on SMEs

Impact of the Appreciation of the new-fangled Zealand unity sawhorse bill on SMEsAPPRECIATION OF NZ$ ITS IMPACT ON SMEs innovative Zealand has been considered as a distinguished thriftiness. It is primarily because the economy faced the challenges of global stinting depression and was victorious in the same. According to a report by Forbes in the year 2014, the country holds a squiffy rank among the safe- eatn economies in the world. innovative Zealands economy has been a dynamic one (Colombo, 2014). It has experienced clutches and disparagement of its dollar on a consequent basis. so uttermost in the 1990s and early 2000s New Zealands economy declargon high penchant of its dollar due to higher interest rate which fascinated large look of capital investors (Brash, 2000 Fallow, 2013). scarce since 2009, the economy is emerged really strongly barely this has resolvented in rising level of concerns among change sectors and industries in New Zealand (Fallow, 2013).SME which implies Small and Medium enterp initiates play a very all important(p) role in the economic development of any economy crosswise the globe (Fink and Kraus, 2009). New Zealand is no different as its economy to a large extent is supported by performance of SMEs. But define SME is a critical job because there is not universally current definition. Each economy has a different definition of a SME (Abdullah and Bakar, 2000). SMEs in New Zealand are defined by the New Zealand governing bodies as those organizational set ups which operate with 20 or less number of workers / employee (Ministry of economical Development, 2011). Most of these units are generally controlled and handled by their owners themselves. One third of New Zealands GDP (gross interior(prenominal) product) comprises of inputs from this sector (Waikato Times, 2014). This sector has likewise aided in provision of employment which is evident from the fact that one third of New Zealands entire population is abso rbed for varied jobs (Waikato Times, 2014). Another startling fact about SME in New Zealand is that it comprises of roughly 97 % of trade and commerce through 460,000 SME set ups (Ministry of Economic Development, 2011 Waikato Times, 2014).SMEs in New Zealand have resorted to extensive internationalization. These organizations are not supported by subsidies from New Zealands government. But yet they have undertaken this route to strike competitive pressures created due to presence of cheap Chinese products in internal markets (Jaeger, 2007). Thus to gain long term sustainability these organizations have internationalized their operations. Most of the SMEs who have opted to internationalize have resorted to a unique business strategy and personate of their own. This is primarily because these SMEs aim to gain competitive advantage through internalization by optimally using various available and accessible opportunities (Jaeger, 2007). These SMEs chiefly focus on geographic di versity of markets and effectively of distribution channels. The markets of chosen not on basis of any technical analysis but based on SME entrepreneurs individual choices and their understanding of market feasibility. The internationalization adopted by SMEs in New Zealand is termed as Bricolage simulation. The model is depict in diagram below.Figure 1 The Bricolage Model denotation Jaeger, 2007USD that is United States dollar bill is considered as a point of reference in the world economy (Bloomberg, 2013). No governing body or international organization has declared USD as a ruling silver (Amadeo, 2014). But yet the hold and depreciation of property across world is measurable against this dollar primarily because it is considered as a governing intercontinental up-to-dateness in. As a matter of fact in many countries even outside America, USD is used as their formal currency. Further approximately 85 % of foreign exchange trading entail use of dollars (Amadeo, 2014). Cur rency depreciation against USD implies a stronger dollar which makes imports pricy for local organizations (Gwartney et al, 2014). This is mainly because dollar becomes more(prenominal) costly. This in turn implies more money draining out of a nation and thus negatively affecting domestic economy. Currency appreciation is a more favourable option for economies but only in the long run. Currency appreciation take to bes deteriorating USD in comparison to domestic currency. It is mainly because domestic currency appreciation implies a stronger economy and making imports cheaper. But it also implies increased worths of exportations which makes domestic economys products expensive in international markets. Alternatively, with cheaper imports, domestic products within local markets face harsh price competition. Though a strong appreciation of currency indicates a stable and strong economy but its pitfalls cannot be negated.In 2011-12, New Zealands economy experienced an augmentatio n of 7 % in NZ $ on a Trade Weighted Index (TWI) Basis (Tarrant, 2012). One of the major reasons arsehole this is economys potential to overcome financial spur created by varied avows across the globe (Tarrant, 2012). Some of the other reasons this currency appreciation are depreciation of US dollars, strong and optimistic credit ratings for New Zealands economy by international organizations, stability in international monetary markets, benevolent economic conditions, accelerating interest rates and a bosom of attention for capital investments (PwC, 2014 Headey and Fan, 2008). Another reason put forward for this is slack of economic and monetary policies by various economies (Bernanke, 2010). In this most of the primaeval banks provide for quantitative leverage of either float newly produced currency which results in increased risk exposure at international assembly (Tarrant, 2012).The appreciation of NZ $ has benefitted the economy by helping the same to control its flashary rates and trend thus enhancing economys stability. New Zealand with its far sighted strategic think has been able to overcome negative impacts of such(prenominal) financial spur. But this too have had its side effects in form of raising medium term interest rates (International monetary Fund, 2010). These rising rates have made it costly for SMEs to procure bank investments and thus discoursing entrepreneurs to a large extent. Out of all the negative impacts, the flog affect due to New Zealands money appreciation are trade sectors, exports business and import-competing manufacturers (Tarrant, 2012).One of the major impacts of appreciation of NZ $ was evident from cut back export activities. Price responsive markets strongly reacted to such currency appreciation which was apparent in form of declining New Zealand exports (Deakins et al, 2013). As a result of this export earnings decline, many companies were forced to withdraw from international markets. This depicted a negative impact on New Zealands economy and SMEs. But interestingly companies having strategic approach which catered at developing strong associations with banks and providing adequate time and resources were seemed to be successful.Another impact of appreciation of NZ $ was unmistakable in form of declining product prices which affected manufacturers and traders to a large extent. Considering the chemise of dairy in New Zealand, the prices of dairy products fell steeply. Dairy farmers were affected to a large extent mainly because such a price decline meant lower income (Shanghai Daily, 2014). But the situation got managed due to high export demands of New Zealands dairy products in China, primarily at higher prices owing to its categorization as a lavish product (Teague, 2014).With imports seemly cheap, the import-competing organizations are having a tough time in sustaining market pressures. A major chunk of New Zealands import is from China. Thus with currency appreciation, Chinese products which are as it is lower priced are easily bed covering their tentacles within the economy. Domestic manufacturers are failing to perform primarily because sight in New Zealand are offered with large number of cheaper substitutes. This has resulted in a change in disbursements pattern of its population. (Tarrant, 2012)There has been a dearth of enquiry related to appreciation of NZ $ and its impact on SMEs. In such a scenario it is essential to ask such relationships between the two to understand the dynamics of New Zealands markets both at national and international frontier. thence this study will be interesting along with being useful. This study will provide with an insight to the various SME organizations with regards to sound strategic planning so that they can benefit from such NZ $ appreciation.ReferencesAbdullah,M. and Bakar, M. (2000). Small and Medium Enterprises in Asian Pacific Countries Roles and issues. New York Nova PublishersAmadeo, K. (2014). World Cur rency Why Dollar is the World Currency?. Available at http// Accessed Sept 24, 2014Bernanke, B. (2010). The economic outlook and monetary policy. In Speech at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Economic Symposium, Jackson Hole, (Vol. 27), Wyoming.Bloomberg (2013). Bloomberg Indexes Unveils alive(p) U.S. Dollar Benchmark. Bloomberg Finance LPBrash, (2000). The fall of the New Zealand dollar why has it happened, and what does it mean? Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletien, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 22-27Colombo, J. (2014). 12 Reasons Why New Zealands Economic Bubble Will End InDisaster. Available at http// Accessed Sept 18, 2014Deakins, D., Battisti, M., Perry, M. and Crick, D. (2013).Understanding Internationalisation Behaviour. New Zealand Centre for Small and Medium Enterprise Research. New ZealandFallow, B. (2013). Strong NZ dollar only part of the story. New Zealand Herald. go out 7th Feb, Auckland.Fink and Kraus, S. (2009). The Management ofSmall and Medium Enterprises. USA RoutledgeGwartney, J., Stroup, R., Sobel, R. and Macpherson, D. (2014). Economics clannish And Public Choice. USA Cengage LearningHeadey, D. and Fan, S. (2008). Anatomy of a crisis the causes and consequences of surging diet prices.Agricultural Economics,Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 375-391.International Monetary Fund (2010). New Zealand 2010 Article IV Consultation Staff Report and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion. International Monetary FundJaeger, S. (2007). How SMEs engage in the global economy cases from New Zealand. In Oxford Business Economics Conference, UK Oxford University.Ministry of Economic Development (2011). SMEs in New Zealand Structure and Dynamics. New Zealand Government, New Zealand.PwC (2014). The rise and rise of the NZ dollar exchange rate implications for the New Zealand economy. Available at http// Accessed Sept 18, 2014Shanghai Daily (2014). Dairy prices, currency appreciation tizzy New Zealand producers. Shanghai Daily, dated 9th Aug, ShanghaiTarrant, A. (2012). High NZ$ keeping inflation in check, but detrimental to NZ economy, as global central banks print, RBNZ says world(a) easing may continue. JDJL Limited, dated 8th Mar, Auckland.Teague, S. (2014). New Zealand dollar caught between safe-haven and EM status. EuroMoney, dated 3rd Sept, UK.Waikato Times (2014). SMEs still sand of NZ business. Available at http// Accessed Sept 25, 2014

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