Saturday, August 31, 2019
Greetings! I am a freshman international student and would like to apply for the offered Paris Summer Program for the main intent of obtaining purposive and applied education on the French language. I have fulfilled the necessary prerequisites for the aforementioned courseÃ¢â¬âFrench 205 (Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬âand is currently taking up French 206. Additionally, I have passed DALF test, a French language proficiency test administered by the government of France. You will also find that I am well versed in the following languagesÃ¢â¬â French, Spanish, Bulgarian and EnglishÃ¢â¬â and has a good standing in academics with 3 AÃ¢â¬â¢s and a B+ in my previous semester. The Paris Summer Program would enable me to upgrade my French linguistic level and at the same time, absorb and understand better the intricate French culture. Such advanced linguistic skills are necessary prelude to my preparation for a future career in international diplomacy, more specifically as country representative at the European Council. Ã Ã Ã Requisites of the career include units in International Studies and Political Science Program and such program require advanced linguistic skills and exposure abroad. Aside from scholastic considerations, my interest in the program lies on experiential learning on French cultureÃ¢â¬â- history, arts literature and musicÃ¢â¬â and language integration. Hoping for your consideration regarding my application. Thank you very much.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Clinical mental health counselors diagnose, treat, and test psychological disorders as well as support and teach clients skills needed for positive behavior changes. According to the 2012 American Mental Health Counselors AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s (AMHCA) code of ethics Ã¢â¬Å"Mental health counselors believe in the dignity and worth of the individual. They are committed to increasing knowledge of human behavior and understanding of themselves and others. They use their skills only for purposes consistent with these values and do not knowingly permit their misuse by others.While demanding for themselves freedom of inquiry and community, mental health counselors accept the responsibility this freedom confers: competence, objectivity in the application of skills, and concern for the best interest of clients, colleagues, and society in generalÃ¢â¬ . They promote clients well-being on multiple levels by providing prevention services and treatments for a wide range of clients in diverse sett ings (Gladding & Newsome, 2010). According to the AMHCA, Ã¢â¬Å"mental health counselors have a primary obligation to safeguard information about individuals obtained in the course of practice, teaching, or research.Personal information is communicated to others only with the person's written consent or in those circumstances where there is clear and imminent danger to the client, to others or to society. Disclosure of counseling information is restricted to what is necessary, relevant and verifiableÃ¢â¬ . Another role of mental health counselors would be to actively learn and promote as well as be sensitive to the different cultural, ethnic, and diverse backgrounds of their clients. Continuous education, research, and self-awareness are the competent counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s key to effective, safe, diverse, accepting, and empowering counseling treatment and career.With the growing diversity of the U. S. population, counselors are increasingly called on to make their services more widel y available in racially and ethnically diverse localities. Ethnic and racial disparities in mental health are driven by social factors such as housing, education, and income (Vasquez, 2007). According to Vasquez, providing services to specific populations and building a niche practice can help a counselor remain competitive, gain new experiences and clients, and become recognized as an expert in working with particular populations.Ã¢â¬Å"Developing awareness of cultural values Ã¢â¬â such as reliance on family support systems, collective decision making, spirituality and respect for peers Ã¢â¬â is paramount in reaching out to diverse populations. The ability to understand and respect a prospective client's belief system is crucialÃ¢â¬ (Vasquez, 2007). Cultural factors such as counselorsÃ¢â¬â¢ gender and office environment (like artwork and furniture arrangement) may have a bearing on the demand for as well as the delivery of services.Counselor education faculty often urge students to celebrate diversity, but the average student is not equipped with knowledge of the components of the RESPECTFUL Counseling Cube (DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea & Daniels, 2001). These include religion and spirituality (R), economic class background (E), sexual identity (S), psychological maturity (P), ethnic and racial identity (E), chronological stage (C), trauma (T), family background (F), unique physical characteristics (U), and geographical location (L).Assessing the differing views of the above domains by diverse clients will affect the counseling process and can be used as a guide to accommodate culturally diverse clients. It is time for the counseling profession not only to recognize multicultural and diversity issues, but to develop systematic and practical approaches for helping counselors address and adapt counseling practices with culturally diverse clients (LeBeauf, Smaby & Maddux, 2009).According to the American Mental Health Counseling Association (AMHCA), Clinical Mental Health Counselors who deliver clinical services must comply with state statutes and regulations governing the practice of clinical mental health counseling and adhere to all state laws governing the practice of clinical mental health counseling. In addition, they must also abide by all administrative rules, ethical standards, and other requirements of state clinical mental health counseling or other regulatory boards (AMHCA, 2012).Mental health counselors promote clients well-being on multiple levels by providing prevention services and treatments for a wide range of clients in diverse settings (Gladding & Newsome, 2010). The profession of mental health counseling is continuously changing and evolving. Some of those changes are pleasantly welcomed, while others are not so much. Mental health counselors must stay updated, educated, and involved in all aspects of the profession in order to best serve their clients.State and national policies on mental health counseling are there to p rotect everyone involved. State policies are designed to regulate the professional practice of mental health counseling. This regulation serves to protect the consumer by ensuring that their rights and dignity are not violated (Ford, 2006). Licensing and credentialing are essential to the profession of mental health counseling (Gladding & Newsome, 2010). Counselors must have the competencies to not only keep up with the constant change in public policies but to fight for the rights of their clients as well.Mental health counselors must possess a strong desire to help others as well as the ability to inspire confidence, trust, and respect. Wellness and self-care activities are essential to a counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being and professional longevity. Knowledge of human behavior, social systems, self-awareness, diversity, and respect for human dignity are all required qualifications of a mental health counselor. Self-awareness is one of the most important qualities and behaviors of an e ffective counselor because it is a way to explore their personalities, value systems, beliefs, natural inclinations, and tendencies.To become self-aware is to become familiar with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s worldviews and is often the first step for many in becoming self-improved through personal goal setting. Self-awareness is also empowering and therefore brings the counselor a better understanding of themselves and their clients. Morrisette (2002) describes how self-awareness impacts the counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s identity by helping them understand a myriad of situations from many different perspectives. This understanding enables them to seek out solutions with multiple approaches, and to understand and evaluate the consequences and outcomes of those approaches.Self-awareness is a critical component to the development and success of a counselor because it the key to ethical decision making in counseling (Remley & Herlihy, 2010). A counselor that is self-aware not only understands their clients but a lso empathizes with them which in turn helps in building trust and developing a more therapeutic relationship. Clinical mental Health Counselors help clients work through a wide range of personal issues from career changes to relationship problems, anger management, depression, self-image, stress, parenting, addiction, and suicidal thoughts.They have many different roles and responsibilities that it is almost impossible to identify them all, but most importantly they are obligated to develop and maintain a safe, trusting, and comfortable relationship for their clients at all times in order for the therapy to work. The mission of the American Counseling Association is to enhance the quality of life in society by promoting the development of professional counselors, advancing the counseling profession, and using the profession and practice of counseling to promote respect for human dignity and diversity (ACA, 2005).I believe that my past experiences, diverse cultural background, and e ducation will play a major role in my success as a mental health counselor. They have equipped me with the necessary tools to be an effective counselor. My familial experiences taught me to appreciate, respect, and love others. My cultural background taught me to never judge a book by its cover and to accept others for whom they are. My educational background in Medicine taught me how the human body works, and especially how genetics plays a major role on the development of the individual.As a future mental health counselor I would like to help those that have gone through or shared similar experiences as I have. My familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ refuge experience taught me immensely and shaped me into the person that I am today. Some of those life lessons are but not limited to: perseverance, patience, self-efficacy, acculturation, love, forgiveness, cultural diversity, advocacy, and respect for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self and others. I view my past hardships and challenges as tools that will guide me to fulfill what may possibly be my calling in life which is to counsel, educate, and empower those that went through similar situations as my family and I did.I would like to work in a private practice as a family therapist, or a refugee counselor, even for an advocacy group that would allow me to utilize my knowledge in the subject areas of refugee counseling, cultural/ethnic diversity, and immigrant counseling. As a refugee counselor I would not only focus on immigrants' time in the United States, but also on their reasons for leaving their homeland, their experience of migration, their resources to function in unfamiliar environments, and the receptiveness of the new country (both politically and socially) to their presence.My diverse background, education, and personal experience will allow me to understand and relate to my clients on a deeper level. Sue & Sue (2003) state that in order to be a culturally competent professional, one must first be aware of his or her own values and biases and how they may affect minorities. I believe that my personal life lessons have equipped me with the necessary tools to become an effective and culturally competent mental health counselor. The aim of counseling supervision should be supervision of the counselors own self supervision.As Confucius said, Ã¢â¬Å"Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach him to fish and you feed him for a hundred yearsÃ¢â¬ (O'Hanlon & Wilk, 1987, p. 264). One of the most important qualities that I learned as a result of my familyÃ¢â¬â¢s migratory experience would be that of self-confidence and self-efficacy. Fostering studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ confidence in their abilities to effectively work with the clients they intend to serve has been a longstanding goal of most counselor education programs (Bernard & Goodyear, 2004; Hensley, Smith, & Thompson, 2003).In general, those counselors who are more confident in their ability to use their clinical skills in real life settings often provide a h igher quality of counseling services to the clients they serve (Barnes, 2004; Bradley & Fiorini, 1999). One of the major approaches often used when investigating the process of gaining competence and self-confidence in particular domains of behavior has been self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1989).Also called perceived ability, self-efficacy refers to the confidence people have in their abilities to successfully perform a particular task (Bandura, 1986). Counseling self-efficacy (CSE), according to Larson (1998), is best described as the beliefs or judgments an individual has about his or her capability to effectively counsel a client in the near future. It is an important factor related to the level of anxiety novice counselors experience as well as the amount of effort they put forth to learn advanced counseling behaviors (Larson, 1998).As a result, some counselor educators and researchers have suggested that increasing counseling traineesÃ¢â¬â¢ self-efficacy is a worthwhile traini ng goal (Larson, 1998) and that examinations of this construct should be included in both the research and evaluation of counselor competency and training effectiveness (Yuen, Chan, Lau, Lam, & Shek, 2004). Koob (1998) stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Therapist burnout and career changes, even after several years of being a therapist, can be traced back to ineffective supervision and that traditional models of supervision have been ineffective in promoting positive perceived self-efficacy in therapists in training.Therefore, the lack of self-efficacy greatly impacts the counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness and competence levels. A supervision model that builds confidence and self-efficacy is needed for counselor success and career longevity. Such supervisory model would be the solution-focused which Ã¢â¬Å"emphasizes competence, strengths, and possibilities rather than deficits, weaknesses, and limitationsÃ¢â¬ (Morrissette, 2002). Solution-focused supervision, in parallel with therapeutic practice , is about collaborating in a partnershipÃ which pays attention to, and develops, the supervisee's interests, best intentions, and goals for their work (De Shazer, 1988).Solution-focused supervision focuses on abilities, learning, and strengths that the therapist already has. It also allows the therapist to acknowledge what services work best with their clients such as their skills, abilities, and creative ideas. Another area of strength would be developing the supervisee's preferred future or outcome and collaborating with the counselors and the clients regarding their work together where they focus on the goals and the solutions versus the problem.It also allows the counselors to take a Ã¢â¬Ënot-knowingÃ¢â¬â¢ position as well as uses scales to measure and develop progress while offering appropriate, evidenced compliments respectfully. On the other hand, solution-focused supervision requires the problem or challenge to be clearly identified in order for it to be successful; m ust present a problem in order to seek resolution. Identifying the problem sometimes may present challenges to the counselorÃ¢â¬Ës self-supervision model.This type of model allows the supervisees to evaluate themselves and identify and improve their own strengths and weaknesses which promote positive behavioral changes. Helping a refuge family of four adapt to their new surroundings is an example of solution focused supervision; guiding them through their acculturation process, where becoming competent of the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural beliefs, backgrounds, and worldviews through community resources and support groups.The counselor can research and educate themselves about all aspects of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s culture giving the counselor self-confidence to conduct effective counseling sessions. The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) defines counselor supervision as: A form of instruction where by a supervisor monitors and evaluates an int ernship or practicum studentÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and quality of service provided, facilitating associated learning and skill development experiences (CACREP, 2009).According to the American Psychological Association, supervision covers a vast and diverse collection of responsibilities, including but not limited to: monitoring, evaluating, instructing, advising, modeling, consulting, supporting, foster autonomy within the supervisee and a responsibility to the patient, profession, system and society. Supervision also addresses legal and ethical issues that may arise, thus further emphasizing the importance of effective training within the mental health profession (www. apa. org).It is necessary to improve client care, develop the professionalism of clinical personnel, and impart and maintain ethical standards in the field. The quality and focus of supervision may have a direct impact on counselor development, service delivery, and, most important, client care; and therefore should n ot be taken lightly. Supervision is a key component of counselor growth and ongoing development (Campbell, 2006) and impacts counselorsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes, clinical style, and practice (Allen, Szollos, & Williams, 1986; Magnuson, Norem & Wilcoxon, 2002).The type of supervision can vary depending on various aspects such as the superviseeÃ¢â¬â¢s place of internship and work environment, client population, financial resource, and diversity of clients. What appeals to some supervisees may not appeal to others? Some may not feel comfortable using the solutions focused supervision model as much as I do. This model stresses growth through increasing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self efficacy and boosting self-confidence which are vital aspects for me as a future mental health counselor that aspires to work with immigrant and refugee youth self-efficacy is.Supervision of counselors has been described as an on-going, essential, mutually advantageous, and impossible task (Borders & Brown, 2005; Bernard & Go odyear, 2004; Zinkin, 1989). Counselor supervision has undergone a variety of transformations since its emergence, however, the main goal of supervision remained the same which is to help guide counselors provide a better service to their clients which promotes growth and positive way of living.
RESUME: Ã¢â¬â Your resume is one of the most important tools you have when looking for a job. This page will help you choose the right type of rÃ ©sumÃ © for your situation. It will also provide you with tips to help you tailor your rÃ ©sumÃ © to the job youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying for, and to make sure it stands out in a crowd for all the right reasons. A resume is a short, point-form document that you give to employers to tell them about your work experience, education, and skills. Before you write your rÃ ©sumÃ ©, you may want to complete a skills inventory to know what skills you have to offer an employer. WHY DO YOU NEED A RESUME? The job market has changed drastically from just a few years ago. While a resume was once only needed by upper management and executives, today almost everyone needs a rÃ ©sumÃ © to job hunt effectively. The resume has only one purpose . . . to get interviews. A good resume cannot get you a job, but a bad resume or no resume will prevent you from even getting the opportunity to interview. A rÃ ©sumÃ © is a marketing tool, plain and simple. Your rÃ ©sumÃ © speaks for you when you are not there to talk yourself. Many companies want you to send your resume in response to an advertisement on the internet or in the newspaper. In order to remain anonymous and avoid a flurry of phone calls, they only list their fax number or an e-mail address. If you do not have a resume you will not be able to respond to these types of advertisements. Many people think of a rÃ ©sumÃ © as a history or summary of their career. This is not quite correct. What makes a well-written resume so effective is that it provides potential employers with relevant information about why they should consider hiring you. An effective resume will show the employer all the benefits they will receive from hiring you. An effective rÃ ©sumÃ © is an investment, whether in the time it takes you to prepare it yourself or if you decide to hire a professional to help you. However, a well-written resume is an investment in your future. Think about the salary you are costing yourself from missed opportunities and failing to convince employers to call you for an interview. A good rÃ ©sumÃ © will get you more calls, more interviews and therefore a job much more quickly. A great rÃ ©sumÃ © can also convince an employer you are worth more salary! Here are some key components that make an effective resume:- * YOUR RESUME MUST SELL AN EMPLOYER YOUR BENEFITS:- The process of looking for a job is a sales presentation. You have become a salesperson and the product you are selling is YOU! Any good salesperson will tell you that you have to sell a customer on the benefits they will receive from the product. Your customer, the prospective employer, wants to know how you will return the investment they will make in you as an employee. In other words, donÃ¢â¬â¢t just tell them you are organized; tell them you have the ability to bring order to any chaotic situation that will increase the efficiency of the office. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t just tell them you are dependable, let them know that you have a spotless record of attendance and you are never late. * YOUR RESUME MUST BE ERROR FREE: One type or one misspelled word could be the reason that hiring managers are not calling you. Proofread your rÃ ©sumÃ © forwards and backwards. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t rely on your computerÃ¢â¬â¢s spellchecker to catch your errors. Spellcheckers only find misspelled words; they donÃ¢â¬â¢t look for misused words. Consistency is very important when creating your document. Attention to detail in your rÃ ©sumÃ © communicates to the hiring manager that you pay attention to details in your work. * YOUR RESUME MUST BE PERSONALIZED:- Templates or cookie cutter resumes are a problem because they look just like everyone else resume. What you need is to stand out from the crowd. Remember, a resumeÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to entice the hiring manager to call you for an interview. Anyone can write a resume for an administrative assistant. What will get your phone ringing for interviews is a resume that tells the hiring manager why you are a great administrative assistant. WHAT TO INCLUDE IN RESUME? CONTACT INFORMATION * HOBBIES OBJECTIVES * CERTIFICATES HIGHLIGHTS OF QUALIFICATION EDUCATION SKILLS EXPERIENCE EXTCURRICULUM ACTIVITIES AWARDS/HONOURS TYPES OF RESUMES:- *CHRONOLOGICAL RESUMES: Ã¢â¬â A chronological resume starts by listing your work history, with the most recent position listed first. Your jobs are listed in reverse chronological order with your current or most recent job, first. Employers typically prefer this type of resume because itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to see what jobs you have held and when you have worked at them. This type of resume works well for job seekers with a strong, solid work history. * FUNCTIONAL RESUME: Ã¢â¬â A functional resume focuses on your skills and experience, rather than on your chronological work history. It is used most often by people who are changing careers or who have gaps in their employment history. * COMBINATION RESUME: Ã¢â¬â A combination resume lists your skills and experience first. Your employment history is listed next. With this type of resume you can highlight the skills you have that are relevant to the job you are applying for, and also provide the chronological work history that employers prefer. RESUME FORMAT Your Contact Information First Last Name Street Address City, State, Zip Phone (Cell/Home) Email Address Objective (optional) What do you want to do? If you include this section it should be a sentence or two about your employment goals. A customized objective that describes why you are the perfect candidate for the job can help your resume stand out from the competition. Career Summary / Highlights (optional) A customized section of your resume that lists key achievements, skills, traits, and experience relevant to the position for which you are applying can serve dual purposes. It highlights your relevant experience and lets the prospective employer know that you have taken the time to create a resume that shows how you are qualified for the job. Experience This section of your resume includes your work history. List the companies you worked for, dates of employment, the positions you held and a bulleted list of responsibilities and achievements. Company #1 City, State Dates Worked Job Title Responsibilities / Achievements Responsibilities / Achievements Company #2 City, State Dates Worked Job Title Responsibilities / Achievements Responsibilities / Achievements Education In the education section of your resume, list the schools you attended, the degrees you attained, and any special awards and honors you earned. College, Degree Awards, Honors Skills Include skills related to the position / career field that you are applying for i.e. computer skills, language skills. References available upon request There is no need to include references on your resume or even to mention that references are available. Rather, have a separate list of references to give to employers upon request. Customize Your Resume In all cases, be sure to personalize and customize your resume, so it reflects your skills and abilities and connects them with the jobs you are applying for. Review Resume Samples Review sample resumes so you can incorporate your resume template information into an appropriate format.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
The Relationship between Culture and Technology - Research Paper Example The topic is based on the development and forms of old media which indicates the technological development in the old era. This will be compared with the temporary social network technologies such as the Facebook. This will be developed with the intention to observe the technological development along the time and the cultural change relied on the technological development. Furthermore, this paper will provide the understanding of cultural changes such as what individualÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life changes along with the technological development. This will examine the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world and what has changed and their relations with technologies. Thus, this current study will summarize the media development and the relationship between technological and cultural change. Overall, this present study is based on the relationship between old and new media technologies and their associated cultural practices. According to Mesch (2009), new media shapes many ways to communicate and interact with each other. It is identified that interactivity is considered as central to new media which include letters to the editor, radio and television talk shows, computer and technological programme and listener participation in such programs. In accordance of Pinchot, Paullet, and Rota (2010), it is identified that old media interactivity was less as radios, television and newspapers did not measure the preferences and opinions of people as communication was considered as conversation. Grossman (2008) argues that people were provided what the media idea and thought is right for them but in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, the interactivity degree has enhanced that does not necessarily mean. This means that every media has few interactivity components or elements which mostly do as it is examined by computers which can converse back these days.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Workers Compensation - Essay Example Indeed who would pray for such misfortune occurring to least of all, a worker whose only means of income arises from the fruit of his toil --The dream of longevity is owed to the chance of continuity of life and one's job. The Federal Employment Compensation Act made available the protection for disabilities of workers while on duty, and the State Laws on Compensation covers a wider framework beneficial for the working class and their families. Injuries and disabilities incurred while doing one's work becomes highly compensable without numerous demands for presentment or litigation. Injured employees may claim reimbursements of his medical expense during a disability. He may also claim 2/3 of his normal monthly salary during his illness and more if he has dependents. Survivors of deceased workers who are killed while on the job may claim under this law with the proper agencies. Soldiers in battle die as heroes and are remembered for their courage and bravery. Leaving the families to fend for themselves adds insult to the family's injury and creates a sense of dread among the military. The Worker's Compensation Law has now made it ultra-possible for families to refrain from suffering such neglect and hardship. Burn-outs will be minimized due to the knowledge that no matter what happens; life still goes on for the living. .
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Article Presentation - Assignment Example In addition, they should establish the ability to implement EBP in the day-to-day operations of a mental institution. The study focuses on the integration of the most effective measures available in current research. The methodology employs research evidence that is backed by clinical expertise and patient values in order to facilitate the clinical decision making process. The study is based on the ideologies that customs, norms, expert opinions and established rituals are no longer acceptable practices in the decision making process. Instead, there is a need for a deliberate process that takes the values and preferences of patients into account. The article argues that, this perception demonstrates that EBP is a clinical strategy that can aid problem solving. Consequently, emphasis is placed on identifying the best research evidence and integrating it in the decision making process. The process will ensure that clinicians are providing the best care that fulfills the needs of their patients. Increasing interest in mental health issues has prompted researchers to increase the body of knowledge available on the topic. As a result, mental health nurses can refer to a growing EBP base. However, many researches are done in a controlled environment. Consequently, effectiveness may be inappropriate in a real world setting where there are limitations such as limited organizational resources, workforce issues, lack of sufficient staff education and training. Many psychiatric mental health (PMH) issues have not been addressed. The failure to research or define them can be attributed to ethical issues. In this instance, the best recourse for mental health professionals is to hold discussions on the recommended intervention measures. They should also highlight the potential risks and benefits involved. In addition, they should study the available alternatives before settling on one course of action. In spite of the increasing application of
Monday, August 26, 2019
2 - Movie Review Example As he grows attached to Diego, he becomes lenient and also pursues a love interest-DiegoÃ¢â¬â¢s neighbor. The Seventh Seal movie is a drama based on the medieval crusade times where the main character, Antonious Bloch faces many hurdles in his life. After he comes back from the crusades, he realizes that there is famine and plagues in his homeland and there is a man (Death) on his trail to kill him (SDG, 2005). Block challenges his assassin to a game of chess where the stakes are high. If block loses, he dies and if he is wins all is well with him and his family. There is a strong message in the film and a moral struggle between doing what is right for oneself and the interests of others. The game of chess decides the outcomes of individualÃ¢â¬â¢s lives(Young, 1960. This, in itself, is a moral contentious issue as the stakes are too high to be decided by individualÃ¢â¬â¢s game knowledge. Ashes and Diamonds concern the plight of Maciek, a young polish right-wing army man who is instructed to assassinate the new communist secretary (Bradshaw, 2009). He attempts but fails in his first trial, causing the death of two civilians. He tries again but he is not convinced he is doing the right thing. He falls in love with a girl at the hotel where the communist frontrunner stays. He eventually manages to kill the leader but also dies from wounds from a gunshot he sustained (Malcolm, 1999). The moral struggle in this film is portrayed in the conscience of the young soldier. He is not convinced that killing the communist secretary is appropriate and according to his principles. However, as an army officer, he is obligated to follow the orders he is given, killing the communist official. Zhang YimouÃ¢â¬â¢s Red Sorghum is a chines film that covers the chines cultural revolution during the periods of 60s and 70s. It entails the story of a young poor girl who is
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The impact of advertisement on female customers in Doha - Research Paper Example This "The impact of advertisement on female customers in Doha" essay outlines the effect of an ad on the society. According to Brooks (2008), recent trends in DohaÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisement content suggest that 70% of people seen in food advertisements belong to the female gender. These advertisement figures are usually of lean and slender body shapes. This creates perceptions that slender and lean figure represents the ideal body weight of women in modern societies. Relevant psychological studies indicated that portrayal of idealized thinness in the advert media falls contrary to actual average body weight of female consumers around Doha. In this case, women tends to develop negative moods and personal perceptions whenever their actual body weights fall short of the idealized body figures seen in advertisements. The worst part is that these adverts largely communicate messages on fast food. As a result, female population usually tries to emulate the celebrities in advertisement by consuming the advertised fast food products. In this context, social studies indicate that teenage girls in Doha are unhappy about their actual body weights. Brooks (2008) emphasize that they are striving to consume fast food in an effort to attain idealized body weights seen women within commercial adverts. Importance of this research comes in on the effect of fast food consumption among the teenage population. It is undeniable that fast food presents negative health results like obesity and high cholesterol level in the body. In this case, the research seeks to ascertain the role of advertisements in influencing current nutritional trends witnessed among the female population in Doha. In the essay, we acknowledged earlier that this research paper
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Three-river-source ecological environment protection strategy - Essay Example To achieve ecological and environmental protection in this region, an innovative environmental protection strategy is required. New developments in environmental policy, coupled with a new global awareness are sure to help the environmental cause. The establishment of a permanent ecological conservation zone will serve as a model for the region. The establishment of the Three-River source regionÃ¢â¬â¢s ecological protection foundation is crucial, and so is building a long-term ecological environment compensation policy. The compensation policy serves for relocating people, who depend on the region, to towns and cities, in order to restore its riversÃ¢â¬â¢ ecological environment. The establishment of an ecological conservation zone has become an important protection activity in natural areas around the world. The establishment of an ecological conservation zone is not only beneficial for conserving the flora and fauna, but it also generates economic benefits for communities living in rural and remote areas. Generally speaking, conservation strives to practice the sensible use of natural resources and maintains the biological diversity. It limits the adverse effects of human activities by establishing an ecological conservation zone. It serves to restore timber, improve water quality and provide an area to graze livestock. Conservation practice concerns all kinds of disciplines. It is relevant for subjects- such as philosophy, economics, and sociology - that are concerned with the social environment.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Writing is an important thing - Essay Example Writing helps students achieve goals and objectives related to other subjects within and without the teaching and learning environment. As a writer, I have come to understand that writing is not as easy as it appears. Writing can be as simple as one could think, or as complex as it could ever get. On the same note, forms of writing are many and different. For this reason, the experiences of a writer are broad in terms of scope, and these experiences show oneÃ¢â¬â¢s creativity and imagination in writing. Personally, when I joined this class I did not know what defines a well-written essay. With the free writing assignment, however, I learnt proper essay writing through getting information, organizing the content, and targeting the intended audience. When writing, it is important to capture the intended main idea. Through free writing, I have learnt how to identify the main ideas from a given piece of writing. Main ideas give meaning to any written piece. On the same note, the style and strategy of presenting written work matters as far as the audience is concerned. In this respect, I have learnt to address major factors that improve the quality of writing. In so doing, I have become a more competent writer. Over and above improving the quality of writing, I have understood synthesizing, comparing, and contrasting information and/or content of written work. In the process, I have become a writer who thinks outside the box when presented with a piece of information and/or text.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The Theory Of Gentrification - Essay Example The theory of gentrification and the rent gap (Smith 1979), suggests there has been a great deal of pressure for change in some parts of the city. This paper argues that history matters to how gentrification unfolds in Boston and this explains the pressures that have led to change in that BostonÃ¢â¬â¢s gentrifying neighborhoods. Smith (1979, 538) states that after a period of sustained deterioration, many cities in America are experiencing gentrification of certain central city neighborhoods. He states that the initial signs of revival in the 1950s grew in 1960s and by 1970s had caused widespread gentrification that affected most of the older cities in the country. The earlier issues of sustained deterioration acted that occurred in American cities over time shows a historical aspect that influenced the changes in terms of gentrification in the country. The signs of revival that were recorded in the American cities between the 1950s and the 1960s represent the pressures that led to the citiesÃ¢â¬â¢ gentrifying neighborhoods. Lewis (1979, 23) states, Ã¢â¬Å"History matters to the structure and look of a landscape. We inherit a landscape, which forms the basis for any changes, or developments we subsequently make. Change itself is uneven (historically lumpy).Ã¢â¬ Lewis clearly shows that history contributes to the manner in which a landscape changes. A landscape cannot just change without an influence. There must be some past issues that influence how a city changes. The history might be desirable or not but either of them influences how a city changes. If the history is desirable, it will contribute to positive change in terms of improvement from the past. However, if the history is undesirable, it will influence the city to change considerably aiming for desirable outcomes. However, this does not mean that the change must be consistent because generally, change is uneven. In Boston, for instance, history has played a major factor in terms of is gentrification. Originally, the city was a forested land.
The love for American football Essay Someone who is from another country like me, may believe that life in the United States is very diverse from life anywhere else. Countless people from other countries have a completely distorted image of how we may live there in America and the mentalities thatthey all posess. Not all of Americans are spoiled, overweight, or are obsessed with football. All of them are completely different for the most part, and are actually concerned about what is occurring in the world today. However, I do believe I can say that most Americans are proud to be here, and proud to represent the UNITED States, and that pride and love is shared by everyone, kind of like a big family. Just like other countries, there are things that the people tend to be attracted to more than another group of people would. For example, in Mexico, soccer is huge, and almost everyone there is crazy about it, but here in the United States, soccer doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold near as many fans. Since one doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really know a lot about the life in the United States, and the things all Americans seem to enjoy, I would like to enlighten you to the one thing that I believe is totally Ã¢â¬ËAmericanÃ¢â¬â¢. And of coarse, I would have to say its football. Now, no all of Americans enjoy the hazardous sport, but about nine out of ten of them absolutely adore it(including myseld). The competition and the thrill that you get from watching breathtaking game, will most likely have you sitting at the edge of your seat, not wanting to miss a minute of whar you are seeing take place on the television screen. The runs, the cheers, the interceptions, the touchdowns, and most of all the victory when itÃ¢â¬â¢s all over is what I believe makes football what is it today in the society of Americans. If you were to meet another Amrican, I can almost guarantee that the person has a favorite football team that they support with all of theit hearts.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Effects of Cross-Cultural Exchange Cross-Cultural Exchange Alex Carr Cross-Cultural Exchange was a fundamental part of the development of societies. Through this form of exchange, societies were able to acquire knowledge from one and other, and upon doing so enrich their own cultures through studying abroad. When looking at the effects of cross-cultural exchange, there are many different aspects of study. Some of these aspects include, new foods being brought to different continents, cultures being shared, the use of old world traditions in new places which havent seen the likes of such before and the rise of empires through expansion. When looking at the spread of knowledge and culture throughout Europe, it is evident that this is very much a two-way process. One of the first examples of cross-cultural exchange, though not entirely out of choice to one culture, is the slave trade. Through the slave trade, there is for the first time, blacks in parts of the world which have never seen people of this colour before. Screens painted in Japan can be seen as another example of cross-cultural exchange, as these provide a glimpse of the first contact made in Japan by the Portuguese. Another major exchange of culture would of course be the spread of various religions throughout Europe, America, Asia and Africa. Christianity is the largest religion and has been spread by influential figures. The largest example of this would be the spread of Christianity over the Roman Empire when Constantine became Christian which happened in 313, so although this was very early in world history, nonetheless it was the foundation for Chris tianity in Europe. Christianity itself was founded in about 30 AD and was followed according to the teachings of Jesus Christ. Through the decline of the classical form of government which in empires was a monarchy, several factors contributed to the spread of the religions that can be seen throughout the world today. As previously seen throughout history most religions were regional, rather than national because it was much harder to travel, and spread the word of these religions unless preached by missionaries and such. Buddhism spread throughout India and Hinduism spread to several other areas of India. Hinduism had a profound influence on Southeast Asia. Christianity had the ability to grow in the Roman Empire and even beyond, it even found its way into the Middle East, and North Africa. Religion was, and still is possibly the most influential part of cross-cultural exchange, as it can bring nations together, or even apart. One of the most profound effects of cross-cultural exchange may very well be the introduction of different foods to all different parts of the world through the trade of different cultures foods. One of the most evident examples of this would be when Columbus returned from Spain in 1493, bringing with him things never before seen in Europe, such as horses, pigs, wheat, chickpeas, vegetable seeds, and fruit trees. This event sparked the trade between different continents, which allowed exotic foods to be imported. The exchange of different foods is an essential part of life, as these caused drastic changes in the usual staple foods of different countries. An example of this is tomatoes in Italy, now a staple food but once only found in the valleys of Mexico. Another major example of how essential the exchange of food is would be corn. Corn was originally from Cuba, there Columbus discovered its many uses, and corn spread through the world. Corn became the main source of food on slave ships. Another crop that quickly became a very prominent food in the European diet was the potato. They were grown on land not suitable for other crops, and cheap to grow. They quickly became cheap food for inmates and other impoverished areas. One major way that foods are spread throughout different countries is of course through immigration. This is very evident in Canada, because the country is so ethnically diverse; there can be foods from all over the world seen in Canada. Canada is a very good example of cross-cultural exchange because of the diversity that is there which has been created through their very open immigration system, which does not discriminate according to race. Many different religions are seen in Canada, foods from all over the world, a vast number of different races, all living together in one place, all because of cross-cultural exchange and more specifically immigration. The expansion of empires in the western world was a very good example of cross-cultural exchange, as the colonies were heavily influenced by their homelands. As these new colonies were formed, religion once again played a major role in the formation of these colonies. The religion was once again of course Christianity. Early Christian philosopher St Augustine once preached Ã¢â¬Å"regardless of colour, all people were Gods creation.Ã¢â¬ This is an interesting quote, as history proves that blacks were clearly exploited, and not created as equals. There is also the use of old world traditions in new colonies, some of which arent still popular in their countries of origin, but still to date find their daily use in the colonies now formed into independent countries. An example of this would be an old tradition which is that women whose husbands have died must wear black to mourn dates back to at least the Roman Empire. This tradition was brought from the Roman Empire into America and o ther countries and is a tradition which is still used on a daily basis to date. This is just one example of how cross-cultural exchange had such a large effect on the world, dating back to the Roman Empire, and still in effect today. Another prominent example is Quebec, which was originally a colony of France. Quebec became a colony of France as early as 1608, and remained so until 1867 when it joined confederation. Quebec is a French speaking province and holds many traditions brought over from France. The French that is spoken in Quebec itself is not the same as in France, but is actually slightly skewed, this is an example of how there is cross-cultural exchange. Although settlers came from France, the culture is slightly different because although old traditions were inherited, new ones were also formed, according to the new lifestyle that was being lived in Quebec. The French culture in Quebec is still very heavily preserved to date and even to such a degree that Quebec does no t feel a part of Canada and would like to separate from Canada. Colonialism very much ties in with the expansion of empires, because colonialism is basically the spread of nations into new countries. Colonialism is a good example of cross-cultural exchange because when new colonies are founded, they bring not only the traditions and culture from their homeland, but also bring new cultures from immigrants of other countries, which helps to build a much more culturally diverse country ultimately. Through the spread of exotic foods, traditions of old countries newly expanded empires, and new insightful religions cross-cultural exchange has proven to be an essential part of the development of the modern world. Without the profound effects of cross-cultural exchange the current world, as diverse as it is may not exist. Cross-cultural exchange has taught the civilization of earth many lessons about all aspects of life, most of which have been learned from and help the world to progress in a positive direction.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Gender Inequality in the Workplace An ultimate matter of social scientists has been why women continue to lag behind in men salary, promotion and authority. Gender inequalities in the labour market have received considerable attention by researchers over the past twenty years. Since the colonial period, Mauritius has been regarded as a patriarchy society with a high rate of marriage. Overwhelming evidence suggests that gender segregation exists in more occupational categories and the number of women segregation is greater than the number of male segregation. Gender socialization is one of the factors responsible for the reinforcement of gender inequality since childhood. The society continues to transmit the traditional gender roles to the individual through the various agencies of socialization. The different institutions of socialisation play an integral part in shaping the adulthood of an individual. Since childhood, women learn to be submissive and men authoritarian. Furthermore, wage gap, organizational power and employment opportunities have narrowed somewhat but disparities remain in the country. According to the gender statistics in 2011, it has been found that a lesser proportion of men in employment and for female activity rate it was 43.7% against 75.5% for men. Even though women are higher than men in terms of population, they are still at the disadvantage of the corporate ladder. Despite many law Acts against discriminations; many workers are faced with sex discrimination which affects them in the labour market. Studies in Mauritius on the labour market have laid more emphasis on gender equality rather than gender inequality. Therefore, this study will aid to shed light on the other side of the coin where occupational gender segregation is discussed. Aim of the study: The study aim to analyse gender inequality within the workplace of Mauritius. Objectives of the study: To find out how gender socialization process reinforces gender inequality. To analyse how sex discrimination affect workers. To discuss the different components of gender segregation. To identify which gender is more prone towards inequality at the workplace. Gender inequality and occupational segregation Gender can be identified as set roles, and behaviour patterns that differentiate women from men in socially, culturally and relations of power (Women Information Centre, 2005). However, radical feminism sees patriarchal roots as creating inequality between men and women. Radical feminism views patriarchy as separating rights, privileges and power principally by gender, and as a consequence oppressing women and privileging men. In general, radical feminist disagree against political and social institutions for the reason that they are closely linked to oppression. As a result, radical feminism is likely to be convinced that political activities support cultural change that promotes patriarchy. Radical feminism is against patriarchy, not men. To compare radical feminism to man-hating is to presume that patriarchy and men are inseparable. Anker (1997) distinguished two main explanations for why occupational gender segregation should is a continuing concern: first, it is a major foundation of labor market inflexibility and economic incompetency. Second, it is detrimental to women in the sense that segregation brings about harmful views of both men and women as a result, affecting womens status, income, education, skills (Anker 1997). The important outcome related with occupational gender segregation is the segregation of the payment methods and the continual sex discrepancy in earnings with women on the inferior edge. The proportion of the gender wage gap is to 5 to 40 percent attached to workplace segregation is seemingly advanced than the amount by career break 15 percent and equivalent worth wage upgrading 5 percent. Theories of gender inequality There are two types of segregation: horizontal segregation, which occurs when there is a concentration of women and men in a determined fields and occupations, and produces disparity in terms of career, pension and vertical segregation, which take place when there is a focus of women and men in determined degrees and levels of responsibility or positions, and produces disparity on salaries. Theories explaining the existence of occupational segregation by gender can be categorized into three broad groups: the neoclassical and human capital theories, institutional and labour market segmentation theories, and non-economic and gender theories. The neoclassical human capital model Neoclassical economics believes that workers and employers are normal and that labour markets function efficiently. The neoclassical economic view explains occupational segregation between individuals or groups by different human capital investment, or by different choices in the tradeoff between pecuniary and non pecuniary job rewards. According to the human capital theory, men are paid more than women because men usually have more human capital. The term human capital refers to qualities of individuals that employers consider useful, like level of education and years of experience. Females are considered to have a lesser experience than males due to careers break up in effect of motherhood. Some economists who support this theory put forward that womens are not dedicated towards their jobs and hence, they have to undergo through a series of difficulties. For example, they have less chance to have a permanent job, be promoted to superior and better paid occupation. In this model, wage gender inequality is maintained because men collect more human capital in the competitive free market. But opponent of this theory like Witz (1993) contends that even when female work constantly with no professional rupture, they still terminate in inferior and poor-grade employments. Institutional and labour market segmentation theories The initial point of Institutional and labour market segmentation theories is the notion that institutions, such as unions and large enterprises, join in determining who is employed, fired and promoted, and how much employees are paid. Institutional theories are also based on the belief that labour markets are divisional in certain ways. The famous institutional theory is the dual labour market approach. Dual labour market theory consists of two labour markets. The primary labour market consists of high wage, job security and better chance for promotion. The secondary labour market includes lower paid occupation with little job security and poor working condition. According to this theory, women earn less than men because they are disproportionately employed in secondary labour market. Dual labour market is the outcome of the strategies used by company boss to get hold to the varieties of workforce they necessitate. Companies are ready to propose superior rewards to retain primary sector workers. It is somewhat a short step to become accustomed to the model of dual labour markets to occupational segregation by gender, with one labour market segment consisting in female professions and the other in male occupations. This segmentation entails moderately low wage rates in female occupations because many women workers are overcrowded into a small number of female occupations. On the other side of the coin, male occupations, benefit from reduced competition within a broad set of occupations and, consequently, tend to enjoy relatively high wage rates. If females, but not males, are crowded into low earnings jobs only due to discrimination, then the gender composition of a job becomes an index of labour quality for males and, to a small degree, for females (Hansen and Wahlberg 2000). On the other hand, Veronica Beechey in 1986, identified some limitations of this theory, firstly, certain women in blue-collar employment are given low salary even if their occupation is alike to primary area males employment. In addition, this model cannot clarify the reasons why women are less promoted than men, even when employment in same occupation. Gender theories The central image of the gender theories is that womens disadvantaged status in the labour market is mainly due and is an evidence of patriarchy as well as females subordinate position in the society and in the family. In many societies, men are regarded as the sole breadwinner and women are accountable for household chores and child care. Anker (1997) explains, this division of responsibilities and male domination are vital for influencing females to accumulate less fewer human capital in contrast with men prior the labour workforce. That is, why girls receive less education than boys, and is less likely to pursue fields of study such as sciences, but is more talented for literature or languages study. The same influences are also instrumental in explaining why women acquire less labour market experience, on average, because many of them withdraw from the labour force earlier, and many others have discontinuous labour experiences. This theory further show how female occupations mirror common stereotypical roles. For example, womens caring nature, skill and experience in household work, greater manual dexterity, greater honesty and attractiveness can qualify her for occupations such as nurses, doctors, social worker, teacher, maid, housekeeper, cleaner, etc. while womens lesser physical strength, lesser ability in math and science, and lesser willingness to face danger can disqualify her for occupations such as engineer, mathematician, driller, miner and construction worker. Gender socialisation as a medium for encouraging gender inequality Crespi (2003) see socialisation as a logical route with its objective to construct gender personality. The gender socialization process is a further composition of socialization. It is all about the way children of different sexual categories are socialized into their gender roles and learn what male or female character is. According to many sociologists, there exists difference between sex and gender. Sex is the biological classification and gender is the outcome of social construction of separate roles of males and females. According to Lorber (2005), masculinity and femininity is not inborn that is children are taught these traits. As soon as a child is identified as being a male or female, everybody start treating him or her as such. Children learn to move in gendered ways through the support of his environment. As the child grows up, he develops his identity, know how to interact with others and learn the role to play in the society. There are many drivers involved in the socialization process which transmits the traditional gender role to the children and henceforth leading to occupational segregation later on. One set of gender socialization occur between parents and the offspring. Parents are considered to be the primary agency in the process of socialization. They are inclined to interact with boys and girls in discrete styles. For example, a one year old baby is considered to have no sex difference however; parents are likely to act with boys and girls in dissimilar ways. They react to boys, when they seek interest by being aggressive and girls when they use gestures. As such interaction have long term effect on girls and boys communication styles, leading boys to more assertive styles and girls with more emotive styles in adulthood. This communication styles can aid to inequalities between male and female in the workplace. Male tend to be dominant in terms of authority and women submissive in whatever status they hold in the organisation. Ann Oakley (1972), studies mention four central avenues in which socialization into femininity and masculinity roles occur. Firstly, apply diverse physical and verbal manipulations to the child. For example, dress up children according to their sex, girls in pink and boys in blue color clothes. Secondly, draw the child concentration towards gender-identified toys. This is known as canalization whereby, boys and girls are given certain toys, clothing and other objects often culturally identified more with one gender than the other. The games of the boys tend to advance physical interest whereas for the girls it leads to physical closeness and mother-child talk. Thirdly, employ different verbal explanations to similar behavior. In professional careers, women might find that they might are identified with different standards for the same behavior, being called assertive, for example, for behavior at work that in men is admired for being aggressive. In childhood it is the same case, a boy is cheered for being active, where as a girl is reprimanded for being too rough. Or a girl is complimented for being gentle, but a boy is criticized for not being competitive enough. Finally, encourage or discourages certain stereotypical gender-identified activities. For example, girls are asked to help mother with sewing, cooking, ironing, and the like. Boys are to help dad to do yard work, shovel snow, takeout the trash, and so on. The classification of girls with indoor domestic chores and boys with outdoor chores becomes training for stereotypical gender roles. According to Oakley (1972), the socialization route aid to the preservation of male domination and female subservience. The roles learn through the above process shape adult behaviour and hence, contribute to the reproduction of differences in behavior of males and females. School is the agency where conscious socialization happens. The education system is the main part of gender socialisation process. Looking through books from the very beginning gender stereotypes is present and reinforced. The small kids see women being represented in pictures in their books as with babies in their hands or women in domestic chores or at the high end women nurses, women teachers. At the same moment, men are usually soldiers, playing some prestigious physical games and leaders. These images often direct to further divisions between man and woman. The hidden curriculum is known for reinforcing the traditional model of how girls and boys look and act through the use of course material. For example, teachers strengthen gender roles by encouraging boys and girls to develop different skills. According to Thorne (1993), children also split themselves along gender lines in the lunch room, declaring different space of the playground and often sanction individuals who go against gender roles. The school location can be strong context for gender behaviors. For example, the cafeteria is a strong context where boys and girls separate tables if given choice. Likewise, on the playground, boy and girl groups take over spaces. The children of Different World project found that in societies where all the boys and girls go to school together, identical gender interaction was very high during free play, thereby follow-on in more gender segregation than was generally found in homes and neighborhoods. Generally the mass media are one of the most influential instruments of gender socialization because television, magazines, radio, newspapers, video games, movies, and the Internet are present in almost everywhere around the globe. As a social institution, the mass media reinforce traditional gender roles. Magazines pointing towards females bring light to the importance of physical appearance as well as finding, pleasing, and keeping a man. While boys and mens magazines focus on significance of physical appearance, financial success, competitive hobbies, and attracting women for sexual encounter. These supposed masculine and feminine characteristics and behaviors are reinforced across the media system, from video games and movies that show athletic heroes rescuing thin and busty damsels in distress, to television programs that depict women as housewives, nurses, and secretaries and men as lawyers, doctors, and corporate tycoons. Print media also play an important role in socialization. In childrens literature, for example, boys typically are the protagonists, who use strength and intelligence to overcome an obstacle. Girls are included in stories as being naturally passive followers of the male leader or helpers eager to support the male protagonist in his plan. This state of affairs is undergoing change, however. An increasing number of television shows, movies and books have crafted new visions of masculinity and femininity. It remains to be seen if these images take hold and affect gender socialization processes. Gender inequality in the local context Mauritius is a remote small open island economy. In geological time, it is a very young island, which emerged from waves of volcanic eruptions in the Indian Ocean over the last eight million years. A high degree of concentration and interpenetration of finance, agro industrial and merchant characterizes the economic structure of the country. The structure of formal employment consists of deep gender imbalance against women. The Economic and Social Indicators (ESI) on gender statistics represents women and men in the Republic of Mauritius. In 2011, Mauritius ranked 63rd out of 146 countries compared to 2008 it was ranked 46th out of 138 countries according to the Gender Inequality Index of the UN. Before 1950s it has been found that women were in fewer number than men in Mauritius. However, the female population has been growing rapidly such that in the 50s there were almost equal numbers of men and women. As from 1990, women have been increasingly outnumbering men over the years. The sex ratio in the population, declined from 100.2 in 1972 to 97.3 in 2010 and it is expected to decrease further to reach 95.8 in 2050. In 2011, it has been found that a lesser proportion of women than men of working age (16 years and above) were active, that is, in employment or looking for work. The economic activity rate for women was 43.7% against 75.5% for men. The active population stood at 582,800 with 363,600 men and 219,200 women compared to 2010, women was 43% compared to 76% for men, the active population stood at 581,300 with 362,400 men and 218,900 women.Men and women have a similar pattern of economic activity during their life that is less active at the younger and older age groups. The activity rates for both are highest in the age group 30 to 45 years. Some 191,800 women held a job in 2011 and accounted for 35.7% of the Mauritian employed population. It has been found that female employees were more qualified than male, with 22% holding a tertiary qualification against 17% for men. There were an almost equal proportion of working men and women having a School Certificate but 7.4% women had a Higher School Certificate compared to 5% for men. Both men and women had a high proportion of their working population in the tertiary sector (covering trade, hotels restaurants, transport and other service industries), 68% for men and 57% for women. The secondary sector (covering manufacturing, electricity water and construction) accounted for one third of the working men and one quarter of the working women. While women represented some 40% of the employment in the manufacturing sector, they comprised less than 1% of the construction industry. Women were more likely than men to be employees, with 85% of the employed female in that employment status compared to 78% among the men. They were also much less likely than men to head their own business; while 21% of working men were employers or own accounts workers, only some 11% of women held that status. On average an employed woman works 38 hours, 6 hours less than a man. However, women heading their own business and those contributing in the family business worked respectively 7.5 hours and 8.2 hours less than their male counterparts. Both female and male were found spending less hours in the agricultural field than in other areas of the labour market. However, women worked 10 hours less than men in that sector. Women worked 8 hours less in public administration, 5 hours less in hotels restaurants and 3 hours less in manufacturing, trade education sectors. Women as well as men tend to work fewer hours at the older age. The difference in hours worked by women and men varies across ages; it increases with age to reach a peak of 8.3 hours at the age group 45 to 49 years, and decreases thereafter. In spite of being fewer in the labour force, women are over represented among the unemployed. Unemployed women numbered 27,300 in 2011 compared to 18,800 men. Female unemployment rate stood at 12.5%, much higher than the rate of 5.2% for male. Unemployment rate is higher among women than men at all ages, except for the elderly. The difference in unemployment rate is more pronounced at the very young age.Among unemployed women with previous work experience, 22% left their last job due to marriage, childbirth and household responsibilities. Another 13% women were unemployed following closure of establishment. The main sectors where the unemployed women worked previously are manufacturing (29%), trade (25%) and hotels and restaurants (10%). On balance, there has been a dramatic change in the occupational and sectoral distribution of the labour market since, with the rising share in the manufacturing, and a declining share in agricultural and domestic service. Employers preference for women because of their natural and culturally defined attributes, as well as their adaptability, productivity and acceptance of lower wages in the past are some of the reasons accounting for the predominance of female labour mostly in the EPZ sector in Mauritius. Despite increase in employment over the last couple decades, we can still see that there still exists gender disparity in the labour market. In addition, with increased occupational opportunities enjoyed by women, they are still faced with the burden of household responsibilities for example, as mentioned above, woman works 38 hours, 6 hours less than a man. This show woman career is still constrained with household occupations. The factors which have promoted labour force are: fertility reduction, increased life expectancy, economic hardships and wider aspirations beyond the confines of family and home. However, the main factors constraining higher participation of female Mauritian in the labour market are resistance by own family members, inability to make arrangement for childcare, housework exigencies, nurturing within the household, reproductive responsibilities and difficulties in managing the interface between home and work. Therefore, women hit a class ceiling as far as the management in concerned. Such is generally the case despite higher academic achievement than men. This secondary role is also reflected in their working conditions and their position in society and family. While the concept of equity and equality should be established in the world of work, women have to be provided with wide opportunities and can be further encouraged to develop their aptitude and potential optimally. Globalization in Mauritius can also be considered as a threat for widening difference between men and women in the labour market and further creating gender inequalities. Trade expansion has increased womens access to labour market, however, it worth pointing out that the vast majority of these jobs are low salary and low-skilled. In the light of existing gender inequalities, a widening gap between men and women in terms of access to economic resources and benefits to be derived from globalization can be foreseen. Mauritian Law protecting against discrimination in workplace The Constitution of Mauritius is regarded as being the supreme Law which clearly protects this philosophy of equality at Chapter 2 Section (3) and (16) which imparts for non discrimination as follows: Section 3 It is hereby recognized and declared that Mauritius there have existed and shall continue to exist without discrimination by reason of race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedom of others and for the public interest each and all of the following human rights and fundamental freedoms. Section 16 Protection from discrimination Subject to subsections (4), (5) and (7)-no law shall make any provision that discriminatory either of itself or in its effect. Subject to subsections (6), (7) and (8)- no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting in the performance of any public function conferred by any law or otherwise in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority. The Government of Mauritius has also passed law to eliminate all forms of Gender Discrimination and sexual harassment in certain areas of public activity under Sex Discrimination Act No. 43 of 2002. This act protects a worker from all forms of inequality in employment related to recruitment, selection, training, on grounds of gender, marital status and family responsibilities. Gap in literature It has thus been seen that gender inequalities is apparent in all societies and many research has been done with the aim of improving the condition of people at work. In Mauritius, however, gender inequality is relatively a concept which is ignored despite many laws exist to eliminate any sort of discrimination. The measures undertaken by the government still remain at initial stage. There exists little research concentrating in the field of gender inequalities in the workplace of Mauritius. The gap in the literature is little because it has focused on only one dimension of gender inequalities. In Mauritius, however, the concept of gender inequalities in the labour market is buried. As a matter of fact, research is urgently required to determine the all the factors leading to occupational gender segregation and also find ways to improve the conditions of employees at work. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methodology is influenced by the purpose of the study and it is based on the best strategy to respond to the research questions. The objective is to provide insight into the methodologies used as well as into the reasons and pertinence of their use. Research design is a plan as to what data to gather, from whom, how and when, and how to analyze the data obtained. It is a systematic plan to coordinate research steps to ensure the efficient use of resources and to guide the research according to scientific methods; again, it is a plan to be followed to meet the research objectives, and is the framework within which to solve a specific problem. A research design describes a logical manner in which individuals or other units are compared and analyzed; it is the basis for making interpretations of the data. The purpose of a design is to ensure that the relation between independent and dependent variable s is not subject to alternative interpretations. It is the clue that holds all of the elements The project will employ questionnaire to identify the different causes of gender inequality within the workplace. The present research is mainly based on a survey method and the major means of gathering data from a questionnaire. Questionnaire is a medium for collecting and recording information about a topic of interest. It is consists of a list of questions and include clear instructions and space for answers or administrative details. This study will employ a quantitative research method. In this study the data will be collected by the use of self-administered questionnaires. Self- administered questions will be used in order to accurately gather the required survey data from selected respondents to meet the researchers informational objectives, to present as positive an image of market research as possible to the respondents such that they will not feel negative toward the survey but welcome it and future surveys. The questions in the questionnaire describe the situation in which the respondents experienced discrimination and the way in which he believes discrimination took place. Self-administered structured questionnaires are more cost effective to administer than personal interviews. They are relatively easy to administer and analyse. Most people are familiar with the concept of a questionnaire and it reduces the possibility of interviewer bias. They are convenient since respondents can complete it at a time and place that is convenient for them.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Huckleberry Finn Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is one of the greatest, most daring novels in the world. Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s style helps to realistically portray early America. Mark Twain tells the story through the voice of Huck, the very kindhearted main character. Everything that Huck says reflects the racism and black stereotypes typical of the era. This has lead to many conflicts from readers since the novel was first printed. However, the story has inspired some. James W. Tuttleton says in an article he wrote that Ã¢â¬Å"Huck Finn is regularly denounced as racist trashÃ¢â¬ (The San Francisco Chronicle  6) . Yet, again to oppose that is a quote by a reader, Ã¢â¬Å"Anyone who is offended by this book is obviously ignorant of the true purpose of this book (which does not show slavery to be right, I might add) and perhaps should find out a little more about it than what OTHERS have told them.Ã¢â¬ (Soapbox [Shumway.2000] ). The author does use the word Ã¢â¬Ënigg erÃ¢â¬â¢ a lot, he says it to the slave Jim and also to any other blacks that he sees as insulting or of 2 poor standard. Huckleberry Finn still stands as a powerful representation of experience through the brand new eyes of an innocent boy. The only way Huck knows to treat the African American culture is the way he was taught and raised. This is how he treats the African Americans in the story. TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s literary style in capturing the novel, HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s casual attitude and truthful p...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Warrior Marks Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Female circumcision is a traditional ritual that is mostly practiced in Africa on young girls with ages that vary from birth to pre-pubescent. It is reported to have its origins (with varying degrees of reliability) in ancient Egypt. Female circumcision was also discovered being practiced in western India and eastern Asia until it was outlawed around the turn of the 20th century (common era). The procedure is varied through three different types of circumcision: Infibulation, clitoridectomy and Sunna. Clitoridectomy and Sunna are minor version of the circumcision with Infibulation being the most drastic. These practices cause serious health hazards in some women, which become greater in adult years with the introduction of menstruating, intercourse and childbirth. Clearly, there must be a powerful reason for this procedure to continue given the complications and mandatory repetitious post surgeries. Some accounting must be taken in order to understand why women are put in such peril. The answer lies in culture. A person's culture and background define the belief system and understanding that a person holds as innate truth. All choices and decisions are made because of culture and anything that is in direct opposition to culture affects the decision process and their beliefs. Other important elements to understanding the continuance of female circumcision are social and religious traditions, power/alienation relationships, and aesthetic tastes. Is this longstanding tradition necessary and if so are there ways to incorporate more conducive (sterile instruments, medically certified/experienced doctors, age limit, etc.) methods of performing the operation? However unnecessary an outsider may think the practice is, the irrevocable fact is that this tradition is an important element of cultural identity. If the operation somehow was not completed by a certain age in the girls life, she would be encouraged by her peers as well as her elders to seek out and request the circumcision. Different from most traditional practices in African, female circumcision is exclusively reserved for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s presence and men are excluded from detailed knowledge of specific events. Females normally have these operations performed on them before or at puberty. It is common for the mother or other close relative usually holds the girl in pa... ...iciently abhorrent that we will actively work to change the behavior. I would recommend that the United Nations take a more practical stand on the issue and begin to put in place alternatives that will at the very least make the practice of female circumcision more sanitary. These organizations offer condoms to reduce the spread of aids and food resources to incite healthy eating habits so they should begin to train these countries to complete the practice in exact medical form. This does no mean that the United Nations or any other organization agrees with the practice, it simply means that positive efforts are being made towards reducing unnecessary after effects. We will never be able to address whether or not the process is necessary because we do not understand the culture. However, we can make it better. Everyone in America does not agree with abortion, which could be considered female genital mutilation, however the choice to have the procedure done is available and it is available under medically trained doctors that are focused on keeping the patient safe. The patients of female circumcision should also have these options available. To understand does not mean to condone.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The life style in these days has been change regarding the way that people eat. In this modern time, eating fast food becomes a daily habit that people really enjoy to eat. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, Burger king, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) are just examples of the most well-known fast food restaurants in the whole wide world. There are many advantageous and disadvantageous of fast food. The advantages of fast food is time saving. As some busy customers arrive home from after work or study, they would not want to wait for a large amount of time to get their hands on some food. Fast food restaurants are located nearly everywhere, providing customers with simple meals without the need to spend time travelling far distances just to purchase food. This also means the customer does not have to spend a large amount of time inside and outside the kitchen gathering ingredients and trying preparing for a single meal, meaning time required for kitchen cleaning is also not required. Additionally, fast food are always prepared at fast speed, meaning the customer does not need to wait for a long time for their order. It is also cheaper to buy combos at fast food branches than to buy a set meal from normal restaurants. However, this can easily lead to customer eating excessive fast food. Next, the disadvantages of fast food it is health concern. Fast food are generally fatty food made with excessive oil and additives such as salt and sugar, meaning a large amount of calorie is present. When customers consumed too much fast food they might become obese and develop diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, strokes, and heart related symptoms due to high cholesterol from excessive fat. Customers may also consume excessive fast food because it is cheap to buy in large quantity. Research has been done proving it is more likely for people living near fast food branches to become obese. see more:topic on junk food Many young people today suffer from obesity because of eating too much fast food. Breakfast on fries, burger and nuggets all meant a greater risk ofÃ obesity and it can increase the chance of obesity by 50%. Most young people eat fast food as their breakfast and daily meals. This increases obesity risk because of fast food. The process of preparing the fast food using fat deep frying makes the food becomes oily. KFC and McDonald fast food restaurants also use the cycle oil because they want oil steel the high temperature cooking need to fast frying. Furthermore, cooking oil contains cholesterol fats which are bad for your heart because these substances can clog your arteries. In addition, the fast food ingredients have low nutrient values such as low quality carbohydrates and high level of saturated fat. When some people have obesity, they always fast tired, lazy to do any work and the antibodies are low. Fast food and obesity is related with each other because fast food has high c alorie density such as hamburger and cheese. Other than that, eating a lot of fast food can also cause diabetes. Diabetes is a major public health problem in Malaysia. Some people get diabetes because they eat more food which contains a lot of sugar especially desert such as ice-cream which it can get in a set of serve such as McDonald. This food has high sugar level and can cause increased glucose in blood from normal. Subsequently, they always drink Coke and Pepsi which is could be the cause of diabetes. It because in the drink there is a lot of sugar. Eating a lot of food that contains high carbohydrates such as bun and rice can cause diabetes. The high carbohydrates content in bun and rice may cause our bodies inability to produce the amount of insulin needed to deal with the level of sugar produced after a meal. It may lead to increased sugar level and block arteries. All in all, choosing fast food for our meals regularly is not a smart choice as all the effect can makes suffer. We need to practice healthier diet by avoiding fast food and eating more home cooked meals. Fast food is more harmful than healthy, but if we eat it not very often, it will not damage our health. So, we should be more careful in choosing the right type of food. You can take time to practice healthy lifestyle, make choices for healthy eating that do not have to include avoiding fast food all of the time.
In the skiagraphy unit, contrast media ( centimeter ) is one of the agents who helped to better the truth of x-ray image of some x-ray scrutiny processs. In add-on. CM is a substance that is radio-opaque. This cause the contrast media was white on x-ray images. Contrast primary usage is to make the consequence of media images appropriate to the construction or the fluid in the organ basdan. Contrast media major intent of reexamining any pathology of the variety meats involved. Contrast media can be divided into two classs: positive and negative contrast media. In general, a positive contrast media to heighten the soaking up of X ray and displayed as white and grey ( rare ) . Less negative while x-ray soaking up and produces images that are dark and sometimes grey. The usage of contrast media are a few ways. Among them are, to present contrast media into the organic structure by injection through the venas, arterias and lympatic. Cantrast media can besides come in through the oral cavity and from the rectum. Examples of such compounds iodinated contrast positive and negative contrast as gas ( air ) or C dioxide. Among the processs affecting contrast media is IVU scrutiny, upper gastrointestinal system ( GIT ) , lower GI system, gall bladder and bilious canals and others. ivuaÃâ Ã ¦ . Intravenous urography ( I.V.U ) Introduction Urografi endovenous or better known as IVU mean radiographic scrutiny of the urinary system by utilizing contrast media to measure the map of the system. The intent of this review was to detect and measure the anatomical constructions that make up the urinary system seprti kidney, ureter, vesica and urethra, and Fungis such systems. In add-on, it besides seeks to measure the rate of elimination and soaking up of the urinary system itself. The size, form and place of soft tissue around the kidney will be seen on this scrutiny. Not merely that, but no pathology or disease, and breaks in the system awared radiographs taken. IVU endovenous urography which means radiographic scrutiny of the urinary system with a water-soluble contrast media to measure the map of the urinary system. This review is to show anatomy and measure the map of constructions that make up the system, such as kidney, ureter, urinary vesica and urethra. This scrutiny aims to measure the rate of elimination and soaking up of these constructions. In add-on, the size and place of soft tissue around the kidney will be shown. This cheque can besides place any pathology or upset of the system to the system through a series of radiogram taken. A As is good known, the usage of contrast media scrutiny of a solution incorporating iodine compounds. The solution was injected through a vena in the fossa antekubital antekubital the cubitus articulation. Contrast can be seen in both kidneys during the filtration procedure and can demo the ability to map. This scrutiny is merely 50-70 milliliter dijalanakan after injection. contrast media into the vena. Then a everyday X ray images are taken. This is normally called the IVU or IVP. Research is suggested for patients with jobs related to the urinary system. These trials show the kidney, womb and vesica. IVU is the appropriate trial for the probe of blood in the piss ( haematuria ) , skit in the genital and kidney rocks. Inventories are required depending on the state of affairs. If proving is required, readying is non required. However, if it is in conformity with the clip prescribed by the physician, patients are required to fast nightlong to clean the bowels. An agent ( drug ) to empty the intestine, and will be given on an assignment. If the patient has a history of asthma, allergic to iodine or a history of reactions to contrast media beriodin, medical specialty or other allergic reactions, or interpreter radiologist X ray should be informed. Indication i Growth in the venters or pelvic girdle i concretion in the kidney or ureter Renali Trauma Urinaryi shed blooding Renali Failure i Infection in the urinary system Contraindication i hypersensitivity in I Anuriai ( no piss elimination ) Multiplei myeloma Diabetesi mellitus Renali Disease congestivei bosom failure anmia reaping hook cell ( sickle cell anaemia ) i Pheochomocytoma ( renali tumours ) Inventories patients Take a laxative the dark before the scrutiny ofi two Eat a lowi berfiber i fasting 8 hours before periksaan i Information on the processs The contrast will be given merely after the patienti signed a consent signifier Drink plentifulness of H2O for bodyi kehidratan Patients should urinate before thei scrutiny instances instantly, bowel readying is noti required Equipment Kidney dishi Spiriti Velco tourniqueti i Sterile baseball mitt microporei ( plaster ) Contrast media types omnipaque: 180:50i milliliter Procedure At the clip of proving, the patient will lie on the table X ray. An X ray will be taken before the contrast medium injected into a vena. The radiotherapist will put a little acerate leaf on the arm venas. When the contrast medium injected into the vena, a individual may experience hot. That feeling will vanish shortly after the injection. X raies are taken and later, a force per unit area ring will be placed on the venters to demo a better nephritic systems. This will do the patient feels uncomfortable tetepi will non impact the patient Ã¢â¬Ës external respiration. Radiographs ( x-ray ) will be taken. When the set released emphasized, patients need to empty the urinary vesica, and one more X raies are taken. Not all patients with caput memrlukan accent to the venters, depending on the shot obtained for the urinary system of a individual. Projection There are six projections to be taken: 1. Film prelim 2. Film immediate 3. 5 minute movie 4. 10 infinitesimal film ( compressed ) 5. Film release 6. Film post-mict Charge clip series projection objective 1 Preliminary KUB 35x43cm During the first patient to patient to see the intestine readying To place the place of the renal To find the exposure factor To see the pathological abnormalcies 2 Immediate 24x30cm movie and instantly upon after injection of contrast media to see the film nephrogram opasiti parekima system to measure nephritic and kidney after injection of contrast media 50 ml injection of contrast media, taken instantly after the injection is made To demo nephrogram stage of nephritic parenchyma showed 3 5 proceedingss 35x30cm KUB radiogram after 5 proceedingss of injection of contrast media to measure the secernment of contrast media in both nephritic To see the symmetricalness in the elimination of both kidneys Shows the system pelvic girdle The flow of contrast agent by the kidneys than A farther injection of contrast media may be less if opaksifikasi kidney 4 10 proceedingss with the force per unit area 24x30cm radiographic renal ( nephrogram ) after force per unit area for 10 proceedingss performed 15 proceedingss after injection system to show the pelvis-kalikseal Shows the pelvic girdle with contrast agent system Restrict the contrast medium into the ureter down 5 Release A Overall 35x43cm radiogram ( KUB ) after force per unit area is removed to show the urinary piece of land To see the flow of contrast medium make fulling the full ureter 6 Post micturation 35x43cm KUB radiogram is removed after the piss from the vesica ( after micturition ) To see the staying balance of contrast media in the urinary piece of land To see the ability of the ureter and vesica voidance Show any abnormalcy such as vesica tumour, divertikulum Patient attention after the process Ensure that patients in stablei status i Patient altering the original For the patient, back to the twenty-four hours carei unit For the patient, back to the wardi Discussions: Why might necessitate endovenous urography ( IVU ) ? There are many fortunes which require IVU scrutiny, but the most common is when you are suspected of holding rocks in your micturition system. Doctor wants to cognize how to make right out of the kidney to the vesica and how rocks affect the system itumembawa micturition. This trial can be used together with nephritic ultrasound and frailty versa. IVU besides used in the hunt for urinary obstructor or blood in the piss. What particular readying is necessary? Giving consequence to fast If the process done in the afternoon, the patient can eat a light breakfast. It is best if there anything to eat or imbibe 6 hours before the process. Water is allowed for those with diabetes, patients with myeloma, gijal failures and other unwanted wear conditions. Regulation of drug pickings Can non be of any ordinance ( other than those listed below ) in add-on you have asthma or allergic reactions are known. If this is the instance, your review will be reviewed, because you can acquire a reaction to the contrast media used. If your physician feels that the benefits exceed the hazard of the process, you will be given medicine pill Pediapred ( a steroid ) before the review Ã¢â¬â every bit much as 40mg 12 hours before and after, 40mg 2 hours before the process. Sometimes, if the scrutiny should be done instantly and you may non hold been prepared and have allergic reactions, you will be injected with 100 milligrams cortisol ( a steroid ) before scrutiny.AInventory bowel Diet without veggies and the remainder of the twenty-four hours before the scrutiny. Drink H2O freely during this before fasting once more. You will be given a laxative such as 2 tablets or 10 tablets eucarbon dulcolex at 6 autopsy before the showing. Bowel readying demands vary between different radiology sections, and you should be in relation to certain staff at the topographic point where you will hold your cheque. What really happens during an IVU? You need to alter apparels and have on a infirmary gown for this scrutiny and are asked to resign the piss your vesica. You will lie on a particular tabular array and abdominal radiogram will be performed at specific intervals. Contrast is given ( with a needle through a vena in your arm ) after the radiogram. First in the early phases, the compaction will be performed ( for a short clip merely ) at the underside of the organic structure by utilizing a shock absorber or a place belt or even the tabular array itself will travel down ( the caput ) . In the normal flow of piss from the kidney to the vesica, Procedure takes 30 proceedingss to finish. You are asked to urinate before the last movie taken. However, depending on you, more films and positions will be taken. Inspection will be arranged harmonizing to your sisitem micturition and may be modified and tmbahan medicine should be taken ( eg a diuretic ) in order to look into the state of affairs farther. This may take several hours to finish. At the terminal of the review, Radiologist to state why your physician foremost to propose that you run the IVU. Is it possible troubles originate? The lone trouble arises from the contrast media. These troubles are minor, such as itchiness, weariness and trouble external respiration, bead in blood force per unit area ( normally temporarily ) district attorney seldom dangerous ( anaphylaxis ) . A Rare feeling of hurting and uncomfortableness occurs when the abdominal compaction to be done, but this compaction is normally stopped when you told the translator to manage the X ray of your scrutiny. There are particular instructions after the IVU? There are no particular instructions after IVU. You can eat and imbibe but make non see your physician because he may hold the scrutiny or other processs after the IVU scrutiny. Barium clyster Introduction This is an scrutiny utilizing X raies to analyze the colon with Ba sulphate as contrast media. Colon is portion of the bowel between the little bowel and rectum. These trials evaluate the colon or big bowel. Apart from the nightlong fast, patients are required to provide the bowels. Bowel readying is normally carried out by utilizing julapp, which may be present in the signifier of pills, pulverizations or solutions. The trial besides does non take more than an hr. A tubing is so inserted through the rectum, and Ba. Radiologist may be given an injection in the blood vass to loosen up the bowels. Patients with unnatural bosom round, micturition due to prostate jobs that are non healthy or are required to advise the experts Rradiologi gaukoma that alternate medical specialty can be used. Radiologist will steer patients melelui some description of the different places. Done through two methods: I. Single contrast to kids II. Double contrast ( air and Ba ) to see the colon Indication I. Ca colon II. Obstruction ( barricading ) I. Pathology of colorectal Contra indicants I. Incomplete stock list venters II. Pregnant III. Severe hurting in venters IV. Ulcerative inflammatory bowel disease ( terrible redness of the colon ) V. Toxic megacolon Peersediaan venters 1. Give laxative 4 seeds two yearss before the scrutiny ( makn 2 seed after dinner ) 2. Eat easy to digest ( MAGGI and staff of life ) . Meats and veggies ( or fiber nutrients ) should non be consumed 24 hours before the scrutiny 3. Drink plentifulness of H2O 4. Fast 5-6 hours prior to review 5. No smoke Contrast media Solution: 4 cups 1 cup gum acacia medebar 1400 H2O Fluroskopi the ability of 10 frames / sec Fluroskopi tabular array with 90/20 jousts Equipment bags of Ba Injection equipment direction Equipment cannula rectum Inspection processs 1. Prelim radiographs taken with the patient supine on the scrutiny tabular array 2. Equipment is provided by linking the catheter tip in the Ba and pump supplies 3. Catheter inserted in the rectum with the patient Ã¢â¬Ës status on the left sides 4. Then Ba released to the fleksus splenik under conditions fluroskopi 5. Patients are asked prone and so turn to the left and right so that the Ba can be embedded in the big bowel 6. Excess Ba removed by raising the tabular array to place or by puting a bag erek Ba Ba bag on the floor 7. The air will be pumped into the colon to attach to the full colon Ba and to demo Ã¢â¬Å" kaustra Ã¢â¬ colon. This is called a dual contrast consequence. 8. After the process is performed, radiographs should be made of 4 projections ; I. Prone Ã¢â¬â to show the full big bowel II. Dekubitus sidelong right and left sidelong dekubitus Ã¢â¬â to show the full big bowel III. Prone to the tubing confined corner of 45 grades to the bottom 5cm of the PSIS to see the sigmoid colon Discussions: When is a individual will necessitate a Ba clyster? Since there is a colonoscopy ( endoscopic colon ) , Ba clyster is diminishing. However, this process memepunyai usage when there are alterations in the normal bowel, the presence of blood in the stool, abdominal hurting and anus are non uncommon, terrible irregularity every bit good as support for other types of reviews. Sometimes, when the colonoscopy process to measure the colon is non good for some ground ( the form of the colon that was revolving spiral ) Ba clyster is performed. There is besides a clear difference in cost, the Ba clyster is less expensive. However, colonoscopy has the advantage of transporting out a biopsy ( tissue trying ) ssebarang distinctive features or abnormalcies seen. Sometimes if the colon is clearly a narrow or malignant neoplastic disease of the colon, Ba clyster scrutiny may demo the full colon and the presence of more than one malignant neoplastic disease better. The range will be a job through the narrow portion of the bowel, while Ba sulphate liquid to flux through the narrowest portion. A elaborate scrutiny of the Ba clyster may uncover narrowing of the big bowel, lesions and scratchs such as polyps or tumours. How to fix for the Ba clyster? Inventories gut to make 2 yearss or 48 hours before the process. Eat nutrients low in fibre: Do non eat meat, veggies, fruits and dairy merchandises. Avoid high-fiber nutrients. You can eat white staff of life, noodles ( like Mamee, MAGGI ) of fish and amylum on the first twenty-four hours of readying. On the 2nd twenty-four hours, merely clear liquids such as glucose, Ribena, livita and field H2O, the Chinese, coconut H2O, clear soup ( beef or poulet soup that has been filtered ) should be eaten. 2 yearss, you should imbibe plentifulness of fluids, including apparent H2O as much H2O in the organic structure will be lost when the drugs began to efficaciously gut. On the twenty-four hours before the process, you will be given medicine ( laxatives or clyster ) to assist your bowels. Make non be afraid if you have diarrhea, because the intent of all this readying. Drugs are taken in pill signifier or liquid, such as Oral Fleet. Each will hold a radiology section in readying for Ba clyster and certain medicines may be of different types, although it has the same action in the intestine Ã¢â¬â which is to Ã¢â¬Å" cleanse Ã¢â¬ your colon. Large bowel ( colon ) is clean is of import so that the Ba clyster to look at your colon mucous membrane clearly. If your assignment is at 9 am, you will be asked to fast ( non eat and imbibe ) after 12 autopsy, the twenty-four hours prior to the process. If your oral cavity is dry, you can suck ketula ice. If your assignment is non in the forenoon, you have to fast for 6 hours before the process. Barium Enema Introduction A Ba clyster is a diagnostic trial. During the test, the physician puts a contrast stuff called Ba into the rectum. Adequate Ba is given to make full the colon ( big bowel ) . A apparent abdominal X ray was taken. By make fulling the pit of the bowel, the physician can see the contours of the colon Ã¢â¬Ës liner. Polyps, divertikula ( outpocketings ) , abscess, fistulous withers ( hole ) , kriptus ( pit of certain types ) , and inflammatory alterations can be detected. Mass ( eg tumour ) in peculiar is interesting because the trial is frequently used to test for colon malignant neoplastic disease. A A A A A * In peculiar, barium clyster is used to except bowel disease such as colorectal malignant neoplastic diseases. Over the old ages, Ba clyster was used to measure a assortment of other conditions such as these: A A A A A A A A A A A o Aappendikitis A A A A A A A A A A A o celiac psilosis A A A A A A A A A A A o colorectal adenomas ( growings are non unsafe ) A A A A A A A A A A A o colon divertikula ( pocket or pockets in the bowels ) A A A A A A A A A A A o colon polyps A A A A A A A A A A A o Crohn Ã¢â¬Ës disease A A A A A A A A A A A o diarrhea A A A A A A A A A A A o colon diverticulitis A A A A A A A A A A A o chronic enteric pseudo-obstruction A A A A A A A A A A A o Lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage A A A A A A A A A A A o ulcerative inflammatory bowel disease * Although Ba clyster was originally intended as a manner to name the disease, its function has changed. Doctors use the trial as a showing tool for certain people who are at hazard for colorectal malignant neoplastic diseases. A A A A A * In add-on, the Ba clyster is used in some instances to handle a status. The force per unit area exerted when the Ba into the big bowel frequently consequences in work outing a intususepsi ( a telescope in which the effects of the big bowel creases in on itself ) -a status seen in babies. A A A A A * A last trial, the double-contrast Ba clyster, was developed in order to see the mucose membranes in the intestine better. This is achieved by utilizing a roentgenoscope ( an engine to see the internal construction ) and by pull stringsing the place of the individual and the sum of Ba and air are introduced. Hazard During Ba enema process, contrast stuff can punch the colon and spilled into the abdominal pit. Lining of the abdominal pit may go septic ( this status is called chemical peritoneal inflammation ) . Colon may be narrow and clogged. Because of this possible job, certain people may non be good campaigners for this process. Bowel before the process is completed. Anyone holding Ba clyster should be monitored for intestine readying processs. Perforation degrees between different types of clyster are likely due to perforation that occurred prior to the clyster, and the force per unit area exerted on the big bowel, non from the contrast stuff used. Get downing Ba clyster A A A A A * To acquire the exact contours of x-ray images of the colon, must be clean of dungs. This is achieved by cleansing clyster. A A A A A A A A A A A O In add-on, laxatives may be given orally to cleanse the colon of waste stuff could interfere with the processs and trial reading. A A A A A A A A A A A o Normally, you will non be allowed to take nutrient or liquids after midnight the dark before your process. You may be given endovenous fluids incorporating dextroglucose ( sugar ) merely before the trial. The process Sulawesi Barium clyster is performed at the outpatient x-ray centre or big infirmary. You normally go place the same twenty-four hours. A A A A A * When you arrive, the staff will look into the last clip you had no nutrient or liquids. They will besides guarantee that your colon has been adequately prepared ( by cleansing clyster or laxatives, or both ) . A A A A A * You will stay awake during Ba clyster processs. Contrast stuff ( Ba ) is inserted into the rectum through a fictile tubing. Besides the uncomfortableness, you may experience the force per unit area of the fluid that is being provided. If non, the hurting should be minimum. A A A A A * Some X ray is taken. The continuance of the download process depends on the velocity of Ba are needed to make full the field of involvement, the figure of exposures needed to decently measure the big bowel, and the add-on of Ba or exposures are required. After Procedure Most people have a short recovery clip and return place after the process. A A A A A * These images are read by a qualified radiotherapist who presented the findings to your physician may take to see exposures every bit good. Doctors normally call you within a hebdomad with the consequences. A A A A A * If there are unnatural consequences, such as contour abnormalities in the intestine suggest an unnatural mass, your physician will discourse the extra diagnostic and direction programs, which may include biopsy or surgery. Following Measure After you leave the infirmary or surgical centre, you expect after a intestine motion incorporating contrast stuff. You must pay attending to abdominal hurting, spasms, or purging. Name your physician or seek medical attending at the nearest wellness installation if you have terrible symptoms. Barium repast Barium is a calcareous liquid that is used by radiotherapists to depict parts of the digestive piece of land on X ray. In this manner, the digestive piece of land is much more clearly seen in the radiogram and easier to name jobs tersebut.pesakit patients will be given to imbibe Ba, which will demo the gorge ( nutrient tubing journey to the tummy ) the tummy and little bowel deodenum or rectal clyster may be given to demo big bowel. How long is the review done? Typically requires between 10-15 proceedingss. Preparation You may be given a drug pills to eat. Time be get downing the pills it would take the gas in the tummy. It is of import to seek because you would hold gas in the tummy during the scrutiny. After the patient swallows Ba, the patient will be asked to turn over to different places on the tabular array for x-ray tabular array to blend the Ba and gas in the tummy and duodenum.Aa Ba repast scrutiny is at the top A A from the GI piece of land ( GIT ) , esophagus, tummy and duodenum. Barium is a calcareous liquid that is used by radiotherapists to depict parts of the digestive piece of land on X ray. This is the x-ray sensing and X-ray image made from the GI piece of land is much more clear to see and is an assistance to name your job. Patients are given Ba to imbibe either, which will demo the gorge ( nutrient tubing journey to the tummy ) the tummy and little bowel or anus can be given as clyster to sketch the big bowel. You will hold been sent to barium clyster because you may hold suffered from intestine wonts alteration is A A A A A * Lower abdominal hurting A A A A A * Bloated feeling A A A A A * Shuttle diarrhoea and irregularity A A A A A * Blood in intestine motion A A A A A * Unexplained weight loss Preparation: For tummy involves eating merely soft nutrients, liquids, and take a laxative that will supply staff. You will be provided with written instructions about what you can eat and imbibe and when to take a laxative. If you are a diabetic be certain to inquire the staff for any particular instructions. A really powerful laxative and encouraged to stay close to the lavatory. Preparations for this process is really of import if the tummy is non clear processs will be done and should be rescheduled. Hazard: Small hazard of the process, the bowel may punch and barium might leak into the abdominal pit, it happens really seldom. Radiation dosage received is the same as your class will be unfastened for more than three old ages. You may be given medicine to loosen up the tummy during the process, if you suffer from bosom disease or glaucoma you should state the staff. Procedure: Will be done in the X-ray section and normally will be done as outpatient processs. If you believe you may be pregnant, you should state the staff before the start of the probe. When you arrive at your section will be displayed to the cubical and shows the current location near the lavatory, you will so be asked to take all your apparels and wear frocks, all metal objects, tickers and jewellery should be removed. A A A A A * You will be comfy lying on the tabular array with a cover to cover your R A A A A A * You will be asked to turn your manus, gently anal tubing is passed through a little way into the anus. A A A A A * The Ba liquid will so be introduced bit by bit radiologist will so motivate you to alter the place on the tabular array to surface the interior of the colon with liquid. A A A A A * Water can besides be inserted into the colon through the anal tubing of the same radiology section provides a clearer image of the colon. A A A A A * This process is more uncomfortable than painful, you may see tummy spasms, and comprehensiveness. A A A A A * You may be given an injection to loosen up the musculuss of the intestine wall, this may do blurring of your vision, but it will go through. A A A A A * You will hold X raies taken of you in different places A A A A A * The process can take about 20 proceedingss even if you can remain in office longer, waiting for X raies and a visit to the lavatory. A A A A A * If the process is complete, you will be able to travel to the lavatory. Some but non all of the Ba will be passed. Your soil will be removed when it is the colour white as Ba, your bench will go on to be a spot pale for a figure of intestine motions. A A A A A * The balance of the Ba will be produced of course in the intestine, but this can do irregularity so you are encouraged to imbibe plentifulness of fluids and eat high fibre diet for several yearss. how long the process wiil user? The examinatio normally takes between 10-15 proceedingss. readying. You may be given a point that, when swallowed, will let go of some gas in your tummy. of import to seek gas remains in the tummy during the trial. cup the sense of Ba sup and so you will be asked rolled to assorted places in the x-ray tabular array, to the mix, Ba and gas in the tummy and duodenum. little injection can besides be provided to assist you loosen up tummy. This may do impermanent blurred vision. and can non drive until your vision has returned to normal. The Ba will be seen on x-ray machine while you are who moved to different places to let you to barium make all parts of the tummy. radiotherapist will take x-ray scope when being examined by X ray is of import to follow waies and keep your breath when you are asked to guarantee that X raies do non get away. after the process after a Ba repast you will be given a mild laxative for download place with you to get the better of the effects of irregularity Ba. You should imbibe plentifulness of fluids. your intestine action may be white for several yearss after the process. If you have diabetes or other medical conditions det necessitating particular medicine, delight allow us before your assignment. If you have inquiries about the process please name us to talk with your physician Listen Read phoneticallyADictionary Ã¢â¬â Position detailed dictionary Google Translate for my: SearchesVideosEmailPhoneChatBusiness About Google TranslateTurn off blink of an eye translationPrivacyHelp AÃ ©2010Business ToolsAbout Google TranslateBlogShare your storyPrivacyHelp Listen Read phoneticallyADictionary Ã¢â¬â Position detailed dictionaryprepositionin within inside Listen Read phoneticallyADictionary Ã¢â¬â Position detailed dictionaryprepositionin within inside