Thursday, February 28, 2019

Estimating Informal settlers in the Philippines Essay

In the lodgement Backlog memorise commissi wizardd by the HUDCC, the Consultants prep bed the estimates of loose Settlers in the Philippines. According to the spatial Statistics of Informal Settlers in the Philippines component of the Study, informal colonist families reached an estimated 550,771 endureholds as of prideful 1, 2007. This is based on the extrapolation made using the 2000 census of race and Housing (CPH) and the 2007 Census of Population. The study showed that the highest concentration of informal settlers was in Quezon City, having more than 90 thousand households. Far second are Rizal in Calabarzon and Davao City in the Davao Region, both with more than 20 thousand households in the informal settler sphere of influence. card 1. Results of the Mapping of Informal Settlers in the PhilippinesIt should be noned that for this specialized study, Informal Settlers are outlined as those households1 whose tenure status is rent-free without consent of possessor. The 2000 Census of Population and Housing (CPH) info provides statistics on households with tenure of lot, rent-free without consent of possessor which were then classified as informal settlers. However, the 2007 Census of Population did not include the caparison panorama, hence the study used the characteristic observed in CPH 2000 to interpret the numbers for 2007. The HUDCC then compared the result of the Study with the Survey on Informal Settlers in Metro Manila conducted by the NHA in 2007. In T adequate to(p) 2, the NHA identified 544,609 informal settler families in Metro Manila, while the NS0-CPH figures news report for only 199,398 informal settler families.1Household- a group of persons who sopor in the same accommodate unit and have a honey oil arrangement in the preparation and consumption of food. scalawag 1 of 6Table 2. Comparison of Estimated Number of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila, 2007The variety between the Census-derived figures and the data from NHA can be explained by the different commentarys and methodologies pick out by the NSO and the NHA. DEFINING AND IDENTIFYING INFORMAL SETTLERSThe content Census Office has defined Informal Settlers as households occupying a lot rent-free without the consent of the have goter. In Census mindnaires on Tenure Status of the Lot, the responder is asked, Do you own or amortize this lot occupied by your household, do you rent it, or do you occupy it rent-free with consent of owner or rent-free without consent of the owner?Moreover, the Census prosecutionionnaires in any case throw data on type of mental synthesis or house, wrench materials of the roof, construction materials of the outer walls, state of repair of building/house, year building/house was built, floor res publica of the lodgment unit, tenure status of the lot . During Census of Population and Housing held every ten years, additional questions are asked from a 20 percent sample on the following burn for lighting, fuel for cooking, source of wet supply for drinking and/or cooking, source of water for laundry and/or bathing, tenure status of the housing unit, acquisition of the housing unit, source of financing, monthly rental of the housing unit, usual manner of drivel disposal, kind of toilet/facility, land ownership.Page 2 of 6The internal Housing Authority and Local Government Units, on the other hand, mustiness(prenominal) follow the multi-faceted approach provided in RA 7279 or the Urban maturement and Housing portrayal of 1992 or UDHA in identifying homelessand underprivileged citizens or more broadly, informal settlers.UDHA does not use the termination informal settlers nor squatters precisely adopts the term homeless and underprivileged citizens 2 . At the same time, the uprightness mandates LGUs to undertake a alteration3 of Socialized Housing Beneficiaries, subject to eligibility criteria4. Special considerations are too provided for persons and entities who whitethorn be subje ct to constructive eviction and wipeout5 particularly those occupying en dangerment areas and other public places, or areas affected by government home projects, and in lands when there is a court order for eviction and demolition.Moreover, UDHA also distinguishes potential housing beneficiaries from professional squatters and squatting connects (Section 27) and new squatters (Section 44) who occupy the area after ring 31, 1992.The identification of homeless and underprivileged/socialized housing beneficiary or more broadly informal settlers in UDHA must take the following into consideration several(prenominal)(prenominal) aspects post in urban and urbanizable areasfamily incomenon-ownership of housing facilities elsewhere in the Philippines occupancy in makeshift worry unitssecurity of tenurelocation of d heartying (danger areas, public spaces, government bag projects, private land)not a member of a squatting homenot a professional squatter the business of squatter housing for profit or gain occupancy of the land before March 31, 1992To this end, the LGUs and the NHA conduct censuses on specific areas that involve physical survey of the area, tagging of every structure, mapping and household listing, ownership of structure, tenure arrangements (rental, sharing arrangements, absentee holdings), as salutary family composition, source of income, education. Censuses of informal settlers identify all households and plane families, as well as structure owners, tenants, sharers, and other occupants, especially if the area willing be cleared of structures for infrastructure civilizement for safety considerations in danger areas, or due to court orders.However, only a handful of LGUs conduct continual censuses of informal settlers and report their findings to HUDCC.2Section 3. t.Underprivileged and homeless citizens refers to the beneficiaries of this Act and to individuals or families residing in urban and urbanizable areas whose income or combined hous ehold income go within the poverty threshold as defined by the case Economic and maturation Authority and who do not own housing facilities. This shall include those who live in makeshift dwelling units and do not enjoy security of tenure 3Section 17 enrolment of Socialized Housing Beneficiaries The Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council, in coordination with the local government units, shall design a organisation for the registration of fitting Program beneficiaries in accordance with the Framework. The local government units, within one (1) year from the effectiveness of this Act, shall identify and register all beneficiaries their respective localities.4Sec. 16. Eligibility Criteria for Socialized Housing Program Beneficiaries To qualify for the socialized housing computer programme, a beneficiary a.Must be a Filipino b. Must be an underprivileged and homeless citizen, as defined in Section 3 of this Act c. Must not own any real keeping whether in the urban or rural areas and d.Must not be a professional squatter or a member of squatting syndicate5Section 28. Eviction and Demolition Eviction or demolition as a practice shall be discouraged. Eviction or demolition, however, may be allowed under the following situationsa. When persons or entities occupy danger areas such(prenominal) as esteros, railroad tracks, garbage dumps, riverbanks, shorelines, waterways, and other public places such as sidewalks, roads, parks, and playgrounds b. When government infrastructure projects with available funding are about to be implemented or c. When there is a court order for eviction and demolition.Page 3 of 6It is in this realize that there is a need to improve the data show techniques for informal settlers in the Philippines. amend DATA COLLECTION FOR INFORMAL SETTLERSFaced with the challenges of coming up with naturalistic and systematic information of informal settlers, the HUDCC has taken the lead in several initiatives Defining informal sett lers and designing data collection schemes The HUDCC proposed defining the term informal settlers as those households living in i)lot without consent of the stead ownerii)danger areasiii)areas for government infrastructure projectsiv) protected/fo endure areas (except for original people)v)Areas for Priority Development (APDs), if applicable andvi)other government/public lands or facilities not intended for habitation.The definition is based on the UDHA provision of households that will be affected by eviction and demolition namely those in danger areas such as river/waterways, railroad tracks, dumpsites those in government lands, and those in private lands. The definition thus focuses on the spatial nature of cosmos distribution of informal settlers. This definition also reflects the functional requirements for clearing of danger areas and those areas affected by government projects which targets all households, regardless of income or even tenure status. In this regard, mappin g of such sites to guide the NSO will be crucial.Operationally the HUDCC has made arrangements with the National Statistics Office and the National Statistical Coordination tabular array through the Technical Committee on Population and Housing Statistics (TCPHS) that this definition be adopted during the 2010 Census of Population. The HUDCC moved for the inclusion of the following question to be answered by the enumerator through observationEncircle the positive or the nearest physical location of the housing unit of the respondent1Residential area2Along river/creek/epithelial duct/estero/waterways3Along the railroad4Easements of road and/or way and/or under the bridge5Inside cemetery6Areas for government infrastructure projects7Within dumpsites8Within protected areas and forest landsPage 4 of 69Within conglomerate of government hospital, school, military camps or other public institution and facilities10Within private lands11Others, specify______________________The NSO, throug h Administrator Ericta considered the request of HUDCC as a post census activity. The HUDCC was also required to come up with maps delineating barangays boundaries, limits of danger areas, and even extent of right-of-way to guide the post-census validation. The HUDCC offered to concentrate first on Metro Manila informal settlers in coordination with Metro Manila Development Authority.To this end the HUDCC coordinated with the Metro Manila Development Authority which committed to generate maps from its member-LGUs. It should be noted that the MMDA was also engaged in its own update of the Informal Settler Families in Metro Manila and welcomed the probability to bridge the inconsistency between the generated ISF data of HUDCC with their own database. In this regard the HUDCC facilitated a workshop between NSO and MMDA to harmonize the data attaining system of the two agencies.The National Statistical Coordination Board, through the TCHPS took cognizance of the strong withdraw for cosmos data for danger areas/zones and recommended that the HUDCC first provide an operational definition of these areas and then identify and prepare a listing of these areas by barangays. With the operational definition and listing of danger areas/zones, the HUDCC may coordinate with NSO for the generation of the people data for these areas as part of the post census activities.The Department of National Defense also supported the concern for more population data on those in danger areas/ zone, with its comments made during the Referendum among the NSCB Board Members (November 11, 2009) when it stated2. On Population count for danger areas/zoneIt may be clutch to link this up with the work of the InteragencyCommittee on Security sphere of influence Statistics (IACSSS). The IASCSSS may identify conflict-affected areas and study the correlation, if any, between census-generated data on population and housing with otherdemographic data, as inputs to policy and strategy formulatio n. This may be done as an after-census activity. Moreover, there is an ongoing effort to develop the hazard map of the Philippines, showing the vulnerabilities of various regions/provinces in terms of disasters, such as typhoons, earthquakes, landslides and others. Data on population and housing will be very critical in the formulation of policies and disaster management plans.Page 5 of 6DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER-AIDED SYSTEM OF SOCIALIZED housing BENEFICIARY REGISTRATION SYSTEM FOR LGUsSection 17 of RA 7279, Registration of Socialized Housing Beneficiaries, directs the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council, in coordination with the local government units, to design a system for the registration of do Program beneficiaries. The local government units, within one (1) year from the effectivity of this Act, shall identify and register all beneficiaries their respective localities.. To this end a simplex form indicating family composition, and tenure status was designed to be filled up by the potential beneficiaries during the Registration date designated by the LGU.More than a decade later, the Housing Backlog Study was able to generate a computer program that will assist the LGUs administer the registration. The computer program will facilitate encoding, and even gather biometric data (photos, etc.) and ease report requirements.The Computer-based data entry system on beneficiary listing in the CD which was tested in Taguig and Muntinlupa , in which both LGUs expressed their esteem for the program. NEXT STEPSThe HUDCC continues to coordinate with the MMDA and the NSO with regard to the processing of the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. To date, the MMDA has been able to consolidate the reports of informal settlers in Metro Manila from 15 out of the is 17 component LGUs . Maps have been prepared inseveral municipalities.Under the new administration of Vice President Jejomar Binay, the HUDCC has refocused its housing thrusts to building new homes for the poor in partnership with NGOs like the Gawad Kalinga and Habitat for Humanity, and to adorn LGUs to assume a bigger role in providing housing for their constituents. In this regard, the Computer-aided system developed by the SRTC could be easily mobilized.The HUDCC will also work with the NSCB and the Interagency Committee on Security Sector Statistics (IACSSS) as suggested by the DND in order to design a better data collection system. To this end, the HUDCC envisions that future population data will also have a spatial component, with mapping incorporated in the data-gathering and reporting using a GIS approach to identifying potential housing beneficiaries in the near future. CONCLUSIONThe quest to improve the database on informal settlers was the result of open dialogues and the support of the NSO, the MMDA and the NSCB. The dialogues were able to generate a definition of informal settlers that is based on location and is complementary to the needs of agencies tha t will address the needs of these households. As the Philippines and the rest of the world grow more urban in nature with the complement challenges of urban blight, overcrowding, poor quality of life , better data gather methods and baseline data will be crucial in identifying areas and sector that will need interventions. The latest computer programs should be used as tools toAnd we hope when the next Census of Population and Housing comes around in nine years, we are better equipped so that we can binding the whole Philippines .Page 6 of 6

Play Critique Essay

The play existence discussed in this critique will be Metamorphoses written and primitively say by Mary Zimmerman. The URI Theatre department produced its own version enjoin by Steven Raider-Ginsburg. It was per general anatomyed betwixt the dates of February 21-March 3, 2013. Costume design was by David T Howard, shot design by Patrick Lynch. Lighting design was handled by Christian Wittwer and impenetrable design was by Michael Hyde. This production shows students continuing their development as actors thru the form of Theatre.Metamorphoses is a play that is staged as a series of vignettes. It was originally based on the poem by the Roman poet Ovid. He uses antediluvian Greek Mythology to explain the events happening in the vignettes. Gods want Poseidon, Hermes Americo Lanni. Or snake pit and Midas played by Brandon Gailliard. Zeus and Bacchus were played by Benjamin Hill. Who could deflect Aphrodite played by Catherine Poirier.Metamorphoses is not a conventional arrange ment and has a non-linear point of view. A linear dramatic action may be pay back as with the companioning steps, one- A state of equilibrium, two- An inciting incident, three.- Point of besiege of the major dramatic question, four- Rising action, five- Climax, six- Resolution and seven- New state of equilibrium. basic one event, then the next and the following one after that and so on and so forth. Metamorphoses does not follow this laid out set of steps and no single analysis can make it follow this formula. However each of the separate stories embedded indoors the play is in itself a well-made play within a play. Each theme can be advantageously followed and analyzed through a play at the seven parts already established. An example that can easily demonstrate and lay out the structure is the story of Erysichthon described within Metamorphoses.When it comes to the actual production of the play there are several differences between individual performances of this play. The original play was done on water, I determine that would not be possible here. The lighting however did work for or so of the play. The one part in peculiar(a) I didnt like was for the lightning strike, maybe make the lighting fixture in the shape of a lightning bolt? Set design was an other(a) area I took particular attention to during the play. When it got dark in between scenes thats when I knew changes were being made but I can honestly say I never was able to see anyone making changes even though you knew they were there.The tog design for this play was also another challenge to create I saw. The play tended to jump a couple centuries at a time with leads to vastly different wardrobe changes. Like in the beginning they were have on very basic white sheets, yet underneath you could notice the other layers they would be needing for later. The sound however was belike the biggest drawback for this play. Maybe its because the speakers arent the greatest but it seemed at time s the special effect sounds were quitter than the actors, you couldnt even notice it at times when you were supposed to.Overall this was a very satisfying Theatre performance for me to see. It was my first but probably will not be my last, I look forward to enjoying more.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Satire speech

Can get a show of hands for anyone who honestly enjoys variegates within the bulletin board community? Now, Im non talking just about the dislodge from c solelying the garden cafe the hub, or the change of c in all in alling touch sensation assessments, evaluation. No, Im talking about big change, the kind of change that has you waiting at the edge of your seat, with your palms sweating, gripping onto the chairs handles care your life depends on it. Are you arrive at? Im talking about the change that happened last year, that left many emotionally wounded and causes so many arguments, the change of switching the graduating class blazer to the whiten blazers.It energy not seem exchangeable much, but allow me to boom. The b other Im present to address to you to twenty-four hours is not just one rigorously about change, but also about the graduating class. Not just about the graduating class this year, but also the many graduates that are unless to come. I believe I speak for a sensible amount Of pupils when I say that its almost sickening how often the graduating class is given all the attention and the c reddishit, despite what the faculty seems to believe. They enjoy giving every master(prenominal) opportunity to the graduating class, while blocking out most of the other grades.The bbs community tries to class them so much more(prenominal) from all other grades that it has become irritating. Theyve even come to the point of changing their changeless in order to distinguish their importance. According to the American School Board Journal, like is meant to improve a schools environment by reducing competition, improving student self-esteem, and improving academic achievement. But ask yourselves, can o rightfully focus on how you can change your 4 to a 4+ in pre-Ap advanced functions, when Holier uniform isnt as cool as the grads?Now, Im not saying that grade level isnt a big year because if I did, would have a trail of prom queen in seve n-inch heels runway after me. The message Im striving to convey is strictly questioning whether its fair or not the amount of praise they receive? But and then ask myself, when is anything ever fair, and thats when came up with my solution. Change is inevitable attempting to stop it is like raying to get in the way of the squirrel from ice age thats chasing after the nut, its impossible.We all know that even after varies meetings and discussions, where the faculty pretends that they truly take your voiceless opinions into consideration its still their way or no way. You cant deny the spoticular that they hold those meetings to create an illusion that we actually have a say into what happens to our graduating year. So, I stand here and ask you, how exactly do we particularise this problem, actually dont answer that since I already know the perfect answer. kind of of getting rid of the blazers or the schools obsession with the grads, why dont we embrace change?We are always tau ght to make the best of the situation so here is what propose we completely change the uniform of the graduating year. Dont get worried yet I know what youre all thinking, but what about the sailor grammatical case collar? Of course thats going to remain a part of the rude(a) and improved grads only uniform because we all know how much BBS loves to respect tradition. After all, we still have the head girl mail when all other aspects of the leader positions eave changed for the upcoming year.The new excessive uniform is modern, stylish, and affordable, but also very helpful towards the students wearing it. Allow me to elaborate on this beautiful design that go forth brighten up your day. Its what I would describe as the future space wear. To simply describe it, its a dress unlike the sailor suit top and the skirt. The dress depart be long sleeve and ends appropriately three inches above your knee. Since its a dress, girls cannot roll their skirts up, youre welcome male and femal e teachers of the school.The color the dress will be in shiny metallic silver, in order to shine the other lower grade students. Students walk past them in the dormitory wont be able to complain about the grads when theyre be temporarily blind by the reflection of the light off the dress. The most important part of the dress is going to be the red and blue embroidery all along the dress. After reading a recent article from The mod York Times, it is said that, the color red can make peoples work more accurate, but blue can make them more creative.Researchers at the University of British Columbia conducted tests with 600 participants to see how cognitive performance varies when people see red or blue. Red groups did better on tests of recall and attention to detail, like remembering words or checking spelling and punctuation. Blue groups did better on tests requiring invention and imagination. So clearly, the new uniform is going to help differentiate the grads more from other gr ades. In the end, change will happen it might be for the better or the worse but who truly knows until you cause?BBS is an ever changing, ever moving community that advances every day from new technology and creative action plans, but we must show to put our best assets on display to frighten our rival schools. So, lets check over to accept the new change and let be honest, seeing walking space ships would be really cool.

Types of Food Styling

Have you ever seen a picture of food that even outs you crave and hungry? This is food styler undertaking to make food intuitive feeling fresh, great, tempting and irresistible. What is food hairstylist? The food stylists job is to create food and dishes that appear in magazines, cookbooks, advertisements, food publicity, television commercial messages, and sometimes even feature films. Using behind the scenes magic and culinary artistry, a food stylist is responsible for making food face up kindle, enticing, and effortlessly prep ared in essence, seducing the viewer.The food stylist brings to a photograph a creative eye, expertise in food preparation, and artistic interpretation of the written language words of recipe (Lou Manna, NYC, 2005). Food is styled to be photographed for different purposes either for newspaper column photos such(prenominal) as magazines, and cookbooks or for commercial purposes such as advertising, packaging and labeling. Food stylist must(preno minal) know how to create a creativity on photos to make a photos look real, fresh and can trace audience.Editorial purposes in food styling can considered as most famous and exciting job because food stylist can use he/she straight-out creativity to make food look good and attractive. Food stylist is not fastened to any concept or psyche. Examples of editorial are newspapers, magazines, menu books, cookbooks and recipe books. Food stylist can use as many shore up to make food look beautiful. The prime(prenominal) of photos does not need as good as advertising but it is good enough to be published in cookbooks and magazines. Commercial purposes divided into several(prenominal) types which are advertising, packaging and labeling, and Tv or film purposes.Paper ad such as McDonald, Burger King and KFC are examples of advertising in food styling. commonly food stylist will use fake food to make food in advertising more real and tempting. Besides that, uses of props and other sup porting objects also help for make advertising look creative. Newspaper advertising, menus, brochures, flyers and billboards are also some example of advertising. For advertising purposes, as a food stylist and photographer must follow the idea and concept of advertising potency because the idea and concept already indomitable by ad agency.However, quality of photograph is very important because photos may use in billboards and large ads in the magazine. Packaging is the most difficult, perplex and tedious. When style for packaging, photos must needs match with that product and make it real and favorable. A lot of effort and meticulous detail needs in styling food before being photographed. Use a maximum lighten up but less special effect and cautions with props because it may occult a product. For this type of photography, the food presented must as clear and as detail as viable exactly as a product.Food stylist has to put effort to ensure that numbers or pieces of the prod uct in the package, color and ingredients if possible should be shown as realistic as possible (Neel, 2009) Tv or film is take a different purposes examine to advertising and packaging. Food stylist will work with a theater director or prop master on the set. Food stylist must learn and understand particular concept and idea before doing a job because it may not meets with original concept. The most difficult caper when doing this job is the need to be ready to prepare as a good deal food actor and as identic each(prenominal)y as possible.This is all depends on how many takes are taken for that particular scene (Noor, 2011) We can reason out that types of photography can be divided into two which is for editorial purposes and commercial purposes. Quality of photos is depending on what types of food styling we want. If for advertising, it must in high quality while for editorial is just good enough for published in cookbooks. Editorial purposes can use our unlimited creativity b ecause it is not tied to any concept or idea. Otherwise in commercial purposes, all the concept and idea have been decided by ad agency or director.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Cheating Essay

trick is cheater yourselfCheating on school drub is neer justifiable. Students are obligated for their protest work, and it is dirty to cheat in any form. Teachers grade pupils on their hold academic ability and if a scholarly person is c overtly or openly tare that is considered infringement of being a student. Being a student requires personal interpretation, and analysis. copy person elses work is disadvantageous. If cheating becomes a regular practice to some wholeness it can be harmful to their future. plagiarization is a major form of cheating that is distinctly forbidden. If students are non accountable for their own work, so they should be punished for it.The purpose of divergence to school is to learn and be able to consume new discipline. Copying someone elses work does non serve this purpose and is unuseable regards to learning new material. For example, if a student is assigned to take nones on a certain nurture, and fleet in the same worded notes as another(prenominal) student it is possible that one student copied the other. If they worked on the notes together, and spent fourth dimension to word it in the same way, this would not be considered cheating. However, if this was the case then the students should clarify with their teacher that the notes were worked on together. If this was not the case, this would be considered cheating and it should not be tolerated. From experience, I once allowed one of my mates to look over my category notes. As I graciously gave them the paper, I didnt think that my friend would copy the notes word for word. A few days later, after handing in the notes, we got them back. I looked down at my paper and saw on the give-up the ghost a zipper written in red marker. I looked over at my friends paper which read the same grade. The teacher had both of us stay after class, and told us that he didnt know who was responsible for taking the notes, and that either way it was cheating. As the year pro ceeded, I could recognize my teacher was always skeptical of work that my friend and I would hand in following this incident. Cheating can lose values of trust, which I felt it did between my teacher and I. Since that day, I get under ones skin not resultingly handed fall out any of my papers. Since school in beneficial to an individual, cheating defeats this purpose.One of my teachers in high school would continuously repeat the apothegm When you cheat, you cheat yourself. I have seen people cheat their way by high school which does not better themselves in any way. For example, someone in my graduating class had the advantage of being one of the best football game players in our conference, and was praised for it by my school and town. When ivy league schools started to recruit him, he figured he had to step his academic game up. How he did this was unfair because he regularly would copy other peoples work. Students would have no problem handing over papers to him, obliviou s to what would happen to him in the long run. This phenomenal football player committed to Brown, I knew he had it coming. Since cheating became a regular practice to him, he would not be able to keep up with the academic work load at Brown. When asking a friend how he was doing, I heard that he was considering to transfer after the first semester. I assumed that this was because he did not feel like he could handle the school work since cheating had become part of his nature. In addition to cheating to yourself, this practice in addition includes simulated accomplishment. This football player had the privilege of attending Brown University, however his actions of getting there were unfair. He was a fully qualified football player for the University, but his academic level was a fraud. He cogency feel proud of this accomplishment for getting into and attending Brown, but very he is lying to himself. Cheating should neer be tolerated, let alone regularly done because it resul ts in negative effects such as what happened to this football player.plagiarization is a major form of cheating that is frowned upon. Plagiarism is intolerable at colleges, and has detrimental consequences. In every one of my political platforms for my college course, buccaneering is addressed. It is clearly stated that if students are caught for plagiarizing, they will be penalized and consequences may even result in expulsion of the course. Plagiarism is delimitate as the practice of taking someone elses work or ideas and passing them off as ones own. It is unfair for one to claim that their work is someone elses which is why a student is punished for it if they are caught. I have always been taught to make undisputable that I cite my sources if I have copied or taken information from another source. I am aware of the consequences of plagiarism so I am always careful when taking informationfrom other sources. I have had a friend in high school that got caught for plagiarism. there was no way for her to defend herself for the action, so she received a zero on this paper. There are no excuses for plagiarism which is why it is never justifiable.Cheating in relationships usually results in break ups. This is significant and quasi(prenominal) to cheating on school work because as you could conclude from reading this paper, there are no advantages of cheating. One might feel that they will never get caught for such an action, but they themselves cannot feel satisfied for their work since it is not their own. My experience of handing out my paper to my friend made me to a greater extent aware of the outcomes which could occur due to this action. This is why I have never cheated since this has happened. My observation of the football player at Brown demonstrated the false representation he played in regards to his academic achievements. The severe repercussions plagiarism creates are enforced at schools and universities throughout the world. Cheating is never gratifying on school work since there is nothing good that comes out of it.

Love Jones Review Essay

The consummate ladies man, Darius cunning smooth presentation romises more sell than substance. And Ninas recently jilted heart isnt looking for anymore of copes tolerant of trouble. whap J wizards begins with Nina and her good girlfriend Josie Nichols (Lisa Nicole Carson) packing up whats leave of Ninas disappointing kindred. Fearful that the scars left from this failed romance may be too deep for her to heal, Josie takes her to a night-time poetry-slam at the Sanctuary, where she encounters Darius for the first time.The Sanctuary is the local conductn where poetry is the prime draw, and a favorite night bonk for Darius and his friends Savon Garrison (Isaiah Washington), Eddie Coles Leonard Roberts), Sheila Downes (Bernadette Clark, and Hollywood (Bill Bellamy). The romance dies surrounded by couples, we overhear Darius telling his friends from his understanding set, because theyVe (people) given up on the possibility of it. In an awkward installation at the bar, Nina catches Darius off-guard and, uncharacteristically, he fumbles and spills his drink on her.He recovers minutes after when called to the stage to recite wizard of his poems. He disembowels the most of the moment by calling his sensuous creation A Blues for Nina. Flattered nevertheless embarrassed, she informs him in front of his friends that there argon opics for poetry former(a) than sex activity. When he asks her to micturate one, she writes the word grapple on his hand. Everyone is impressed particularly Darius. Darius ventings into Nina at a record store managed by his friend, Sheila. She is there because she has Just been fired from her credit line as a photographers assistant and desperately needfully to hear the Isley Brothers.When Darius approaches her, she acts as thought she vaguely remembers his name. Darius seizes the opportunity though, by vie her a tender rendition of Parkers Mood. While Nina remains unreceptive at that point, she finally buckles and agrees to a conflict when Darius ppears, unannounced at her verge presenting the very CD she had been looking for at the record store. He bribed Sheila so he could repel her address and phone number off of the watch protrude she used to pay for a CD.His persistence pays off when a romantic statement l Just want to come up and trounce leads to a passionate night at her apartment. The next morning, Darius and Nina confide in their respective friends Savon and Josie that, in spite of the incredible sex, It aint no love thing, they Just kickin it. Unfortunately, these two individuals arent exactly the best advisors they could consider ound Josie is way down on men and lives her life vicariously by dint of Nina, and Savon is mired in the problems of his eight-year marriage (his wife left him and took their son).But Darius is acquiring interested. He even reveals to Nina the sacred location of the Batcave (his apartment), where some interesting rousing ensues when she whips out her camera and tells Darius to take off his wearing apparel. The romance advances. Then, out of the blue, Marvin coxswain (Khalil Kain), Ninas former fiance, shows up asking her for a second chance. At Josies suggestion, Nina uses the offer to test Darius Will he be Jealous, or coolly let her go? Darius pretends not to care, of course, and Nina moves to New York to see if she should recover her relationship with Marvin.Inevitably, Marvin and Ninas differences are irreconcilable, and Nina returns the engagement ring and then heads substantiate to Chicago. Hoping to reconnect with Darius, Nina and Josie go to the Sanctuary, to no avail. Darius has settled down with a new girlfriend, Lisa Oacqueline Fleming). Enter, Hollywood, whose affectionate competition with Darius enables him to sense a prime opportunity for one-upmanship. Wood kale by the portrait studio where Nina now works to cheer her up. Tensions run high when Wood brings Nina to Sheilas house for a party that he knows Dar ius will be attending.Nina, feeling alike a pawn in a bad game of male egos, asks Wood to take her home. He refuses and Darius comes to her rescue. Its their first meeting since she went to New York. She confesses she still has feeling for him, and he assures her that Lisa means nothing to him. Swooning, they make up and head for a date at the famous Blackstone Hotel. There, legendary Chicago DJ Herb Kent is hosting a steppers ball, featuring the inimitable dance style popular in Chicago. On the floor, Nina and Darius reach a eam again. The fire is relit as they complete the evening with a wet, exclusively romantic walk around Buckingham Fountain.Nina starts to inherit habits from Darius and vica versa. She starts smoking and develops a love for poetry. In return, he develops an eye for photography. But soon after their balancing everything starts to crumble. Nina finds Lisas telephone number around Darius apartment, and he gets the occasional surface-to-air missile call that ta kes him out of the room. The issue of dis avow rears its ugly head. Darius tries to smooth things over by whipping out her camera and telling her to take her clothes off, as she id in an earlier scene.But it is too late. Come get your things from my apartment wherefore would you be with someone you dont trust? The scene ends with Nina returning the key. Because of a Job offer from Vibe cartridge clip in New York, Nina decides to move. Josie, serving as a averse Cupid, intercedes by telling Darius of Ninas plans. He takes the cue and makes a gallant but futile effort to talk to Nina before she leaves. A year later, his moderate has been published, her career is off and running and Nina has been sent to Chicago to shot a Michael Jordan layout.Looking in vain for Darius t the Sanctuary, Nina takes the stage to recite a poem of her own. Startled, Darius turns and listens to her recital, which is about love remembered. Funny what you move do in front of a room full of people, she s ays, and cant do in front of one person. The movie ends with Nina leaving the Sanctuary and eyesight Darius outside. Darius starts off by saying, Longtime no see. I enjoyed your poem. Nina, there have been mistakes on both sides and I apologize for my part. I want to sick the past in the past. Once again your timing couldnt be worse you always want what you want hen you want it why is everything so urgent, Nina says. Nina, this here, right now, at this very moment, is all that matters to me. I love you and thats urgent like a mother fucker. love Jones shows that love can be inconvenient. It encourages everyone to approach love the way Nina and Darius do scared, awkward, and even sometimes alone. Theres the obligatory handful of tragical misunderstandings, prideful arguments, over-orchestrated sex scenes, and betrayal and reconciliations. ove Jones steps back, allowing its characters to closely quiz what is happening to them. They analyze their own instincts wonder about each others feelings and even plot little traps to reveal the others true intentions Nina and Darius relationship is built upon the use of some key things sex and sexual invitations, pick-up lines and relationship openers, music and poetry, the actions of all the movies characters, friends being confidants and advisors, and the use of Baxters techniques to acquire information about the relationship play vital roles.Their relationship proves that the movement in and out of the interaction stages is not set in stone. The stages conform to your situation. Nina and Darius seem to ollow this type of pattern initiating, experimenting, intensifying, terminating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, bonding, stagnating, terminating, and initiating. They are also struggle with the roles society has laid out for women and men. And are both trying to fgure out how to play without getting played.Theyre both secretly wonder how you get beyond playing and move on to the love. When youre in your twenties, as Nina and Darius were, loving someone outside your friends and family can seem like a task for Mother Theresa. We twenty- somethings have been unleashed from our parents and the chances to experience exual encounters of all sorts are numerous. But flirting and playing is one thing. Building relationships with the human objects of our desires is a challenge that many of us fail at miserably.At one point in the movie, Darius asks his married friend Savon if he believes in the fancy of soulmates. Savons response is that it depends on what day you ask him. Youre with who youre with, he says. Love and marriage are pretty much what you make of them. love Jones doesnt fully answer the soulmate question. In the end, we are save promised that Nina and Darius will be together as long as their view in he possibility of romance lasts. eeting in a bar, the reluctant coupling, the Jealously and conflict, even a mad rush by one lover to stop the other from leaving on a train. love J ones showed me that there is Just no way around it Love between a man and a woman is hard work. A certain effort to relate to the opposite sex is whats needed if were going to get the satisfaction we crave from that someone special. Our twenties can be about a lot more than simply getting our groove on. We can build lives with people while we are enjoying the raw experiences we are having in our youth.

Jamaica National Heroes

Manley Jamaicas National Heroes Published Nov 20, 1995 Jamaicas National Heroes d atomic number 18d to challenge the presentation of colonialism and in so doing changed the course of Jamaicas history giving friendly and political immunity to its people. Today, the statues of Jamaicas seven National Heroes stand in proud acknowledgment, in the National Heroes Park in Kingston where they are viewed with inspiring pride, unforgettable symbols of Jamaicas enduring strength. PAUL BOGLE birth day of the month uncertain-died 1865. Paul Bogle, a Baptist Deacon was generally regarded as a undisturbed man who shunned violence.He believed in the teachings of the Bible, endorsing the principles of charity and endurance. Yet he was also a leader and organizer who knew well the terrains of the land and had spent time in educating and training his followers. He lived in St. Thomas and led the Morant bay tree insubordination in 1865. GEORGE WILLIAM GORDON 1820-1865. George William Gordon was a free colored land owner and an buster of Bogle. As a member of the House of Parliament, he used his strength to highlight the sufferings of the people and to make a plea for changes.The Morant Bay tumult and the resultant deaths of Bogle and Gordon precipitated the beginning of a new era in Jamaicas development. The British government became compelled to make changes including bang-up reforms in education, health, local government, banking and infrastructure. nursemaid lived and died in Nanny Town. Nanny of the Maroons stands unwrap in history as the only female among Jamaicas national heroes. She possessed that fierce scrap spirit generally associated with the courage of men.In fact, Nanny is described as a fearless Asante warrior who used militarist techniques to foul and beguile the side of meat. Like the heroes of the pre freedom era, Nanny too met her untimely death at the instigation of the English sometime around 1750s. Yet, the spirit of Nanny of the Maroons remain s today as a symbol of that indomitable desire that will never getting even to captivity. SAMUEL SHARPE 1801-1832 Daddy Sam Sharpe, as he was affectionately called was to carry on the Resistance against slavery effecting at the young age of 31, the most outstanding Slave Rebellion in Jamaicas history.Sharpe, an educated town slave, was a preacher and spokesman. Intelligent and sharp, he followed the developments of the abolition movement by denotation discarded local and foreign papers and was able to advise his followers. Sharpe was deteriorate of slavery, spent months in strategic planning, educating the slaves and traveling from estate to estate in secret meetings at nights, igniting the slaves with inspiring messages of hope of freedom. The 1831 Christmas Rebellion started in St. crowd and spread throughout the entire island.The Rebellion started on December 28 and lasted 8 days. Sam Sharpe was eventually captured and hung at the Parade in Montego Bay (now renamed Sam Sharpe Square). On August 28, 1833 slavery was abolished and the System of Apprenticeship instituted, allowing for the total freedom of slaves in the next 4-6 years. On August 1, 1938 the Apprenticeship System ended granting full moon freedom to the slaves. SIR ALEXANDER BUSTAMANTE 1884-1977 Alexander Bustamante was an aggressive, outspoken young man who mute the dynamics of intentness relations.A charismatic and impressive speaker, he used the media to bump the prevailing political system and its attendant social problems. He started the industrial Trade Union in 1938 and was jailed for 17 moths following labor riots. He became Jamaicas first Chief Minister, a position he held until 1954, being knighted that same year by the faggot. On August 6, 1962 Jamaica was minded(p) full independence. At the first session of Parliament, Bustamante received the Instruments of Independence from the queens representative, Princess Margaret.This time in Jamaicas history drastic changes were herald ed, not by bloodshed but by peaceful negotiations. NORMAN working capital MANLEY 1893-1969. Norman Washington Manley founded the Peoples National Party which subsequently was tied to the Trade Union Congress and the N. W. U. Together with Bustamante, their efforts resulted in the new-sprung(prenominal) Constitution of 1944 granting full Adult Suffrage. In 1955 Manley was elected Chief Minister. The cd year British Rule, invoking slavery, deculturisation, uprising and bloodshed was now at an end.MARCUS MOSIAH GARVEY 1887-1940. Marcus Mosiah Garvey stands out in history as one who was greatly committed to the impression of the Emancipation of minds. Garvey who was born in St. Ann became famous worldwide as a leader who was courageous and eloquent in his call for improvement for Blacks. He sought the unification of all Blacks through the establishment of the United blackamoor Improvement Association and spoke out against economic exploitation and heathenish denigration. He spent many years in the United

Monday, February 25, 2019

The Relationship Between Man and Woman in Araby

Araby James Joyce, an icon of the modernist era had many work that were moving away from the classical styles of literature put before him. Joyce is cognize for leading his characters towards some benevolent of personal insight and on the surface, Araby seems to be only about a male child learning about the trueness of capitalism. As you dive deep in to his haggling and meaning however, it is unvarnished that Joyces message is not as black and white as it appears on the surface. This baloney is also about the relationship between workforce and women.It is about how women ar capable of influencing a mans actions/behaviors and wherefore men feel as if they need to exert their dominance only(prenominal)place women. Joyce purposely makes the protagonist a young male child who chases after an elderly girl. He does this to elevate the status of the girl and portray her as bigger than the boy. He is basically ranking early in the story that fair sex has some kind of superio rity everyplace man. The beginning of the story is frank enough, the boy explains how he plays in the street with his best friend (Mangan) and hides from his uncle so he doesnt have to go in.This is where the girl is introduced. Neither she nor the boy has a name hinting that they argon representative of all men and women. The boy is absolutely infatuated with the girl and it is apparent in the paragraphs right after she is introduced. He watches her from afar, has a certain routine so that he passes her every morning, and even imagines victory callable to his love as he walks by dint of his marketplace. She is the focal point of all his thoughts and it is shown that he is helpless to her influence when he utters O loveO love everywhere and over in private. He is entirely a helpless romantic during this point of the story driven by his undeserving love for this girl. Their only conversation is a brief, merely huge one and what she says and how she acts says all. She plays wi th her bracelet, signifying the importance of materialistic items in her flavor and communicating that she would love something from Araby by saying how she would love to go but cant. The boy bites the bait hard and is hooked immediately to be drug around by the idea of pleasing the girl.Her influence over him increases exponentially after this as he says that he cannot think of anything save her. He cant sleep, cant think, cant read, cant focus in class and is consumed with the hope that this magic bazaar would grant him the key to the girls heart. All these things are clear signs that the girl holds control over him because he has deep in thought(p) all motivation for anything besides pleasing her. The story stays like this, with him obsessing over her until he actually gets to the bazaar as it is closing and his hopes start to fade.Araby is say to be this enchanted place with wonderful people and remarkable, exotic items but the boy finds that there is zippo but commonplace junk that he could get from his own marketplace. On top of that, he is met by a very distasteful sales clerk who seems very uninterested in him. In most analyses, this is the point of the boys insight to the temperament of capitalism and realizes that not everything is as pretty as it appears on the surface. This is a very important lesson but it is not the only change that occurs in the boy.The last line of the story is Gazing up into the darkness I byword myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity and my eye burned with anguish and anger. Joyce definitely did not use passive dustup to describe the boys breach but chooses a powerful, emotionally charged set of talking to that paints a very precise, borderline stir image. He describes the boy as a creature, as if he has lost his humanity and been stripped down to a raw, instinctual beast. A desperate, pissed off animal driven by his feeling of worthlessness with eyes sunburn from anger and a feeling of deep heartach e.These are not words usually used to describe an epiphany about the nature of the world. These are words used to describe the feelings of losing something great, of getting your heart smashed, chewed up and spit out. These are words describing a feeling that this boy will never once again want to feel. He realizes that he has opened himself up to be hurt and he was undeniably crushed by his inability to get something that would enthrall the girl his heart yearns for. Joyce was a master of idioms and word choice. He was slowly one of the great writers of his time and will always be know as such.He is known for writing about how stages in life claim a person as a whole and Araby is no different. organism a great writer of his time he is also a creation of the era he lived in. During his life men believed that they were superior to women, that cleaning woman were pale and that they needed a man to support them. It was believed that women were home to weak emotions and men only had time for toilsome ones making them better than women. To say that Joyce wrote a story in which he acknowledges that women have some kind upper hand on men may seem ill at ease(p) but he does a good job of answering why men behaved and felt this way.His reason is that men cannot cope with these weak emotions so they shut them out. The boy in the story Araby is met with his first heartbreak due to the fact that he cant please the girl that he so desperately desires and immediately becomes this inhuman creature full of anguish. In a time where men are supposed to be the bread-winners strong confident figures that controls their household, these feelings are unacceptable. It is why men must exhibit nothing but strong emotions and exude their dominance over women, for the fear of beingness emotionally shattered in the face of them.

Confessions of an Application Reader Essay

A high uply qualified schoolchild, with a 3. 95 unw eighted grade point average and 2300 on the SAT, was non among the hook-ranked directing appli brookts to the University of California, Berkeley. He had perfect 800s on his subject tests in math and chemistry, a score of 5 on five ripe perspective exams, musical talent and, in one of two personalized statements, had written a loving tribute to his parents, who had emigrated from India. Enlarge This form Brian Cronin for The novel York Times Related Go to Education Life Enlarge This Image Peg Skorpinski Sather Gate, a literal and symbolic portal on Berkeleys campus.Readers Comments Readers shared their minds on this article. Read All Comments (250) w presentfore was he non top-ranked by the worlds premier overt university, as Berkeley calls itself? maybe others had perfect grades and scores? They did indeed. Were they ranked higher? Not necessarily. What kind of student was ranked higher? Every case is incompatible . The reason our budding engineer was a 2 on a 1-to-5 scale (1 being highest) has to do with Berkeleys holistic, or comprehensive, review, an admissions policy adopted by most discriminating colleges and universities.In holistic review, institutions look beyond grades and scores to determine academic potential, drive and leadership abilities. Apparently, our Indian-American student indispensable more extracurricular activities and technology awards to be ranked a 1. Now consider a indorse engineering applicant, a Mexican-American student with a moving, well-written essay but a 3. 4 G. P. A. and SATs below 1800. His school offered no A. P. He competed in skip over when not at his after-school job, working the fields with his parents. His score? 2. 5. twain students were among typical applicants used as norms to train application lecturers like myself.And their different credentials yet remarkably close rankings illustrate the challenges, the ambiguities and the agenda of admis sions at a major public research university in a post-affirmative-action world. musical composition teaching ethics at the University of San Francisco, I signed on as an external reader at Berkeley for the fall 2011 admissions cycle. I was one of round 70 outside readers some high school counselors, some clubby admissions consultants who helped rank the nearly 53,000 applications that year, giving each about eight legal proceeding of attention.An applicant scoring a 4 or 5 was in all probability going to be disappointed a 3 might be deferred to a January entry students with a 1, 2 or 2. 5 went to the top of the pile, but that didnt mean they were in. Berkeley might accept 21 portion of freshman applicants over all but only 12 pct in engineering. My job was to help sort the pool. We were to assess each set up of information grades, courses, standardized test scores, activities, leadership potential and character in an additive fashion, looking for ways to boost the studen t to the succeeding(prenominal) level, as opposed to counting every factor as a negative. remote readers are only the for the first time read. Every one of our applications was scored by an experient lead reader before being passed on to an inner deputation of admissions incumbents for the selection phase. My new position required two days of intensive training at the Berkeley Alumni House as well as eight three-hour norming sessions. There, we practiced ranking under the supervision of lead readers and admissions military officers to ensure our decisions conformed to the criteria draw by the admissions office, with the intent of giving applicants as close to equal discourse as possible.The mathematical shape, however, turned out very differently. In principle, a broader inquiry of candidates is a great mentation some might say it is an honourable imperative to look at the bigger picture of an applicants life, as our mission was described. Considering the bigger picture has aided Berkeleys out of bounds of diversity after Proposition 209, which in 1996 amended Californias constitution to prohibit consideration of race, ethnicity or gender in admissions to public institutions.In Fisher v.the University of Texas, the Supreme Court, too, endorsed race-neutral processes aimed at promoting educational diversity and, on throwing the case back to lower courts, challenged public institutions to justify race as a factor in the holistic process. In practice, holistic admissions raises umpteen questions about who gets selected, how and why. I could see the fundamental unevenness in this process both in the norming Webinars and when alone in a dark inhabit at home with my Berkeley-issued netbook, reading assigned applications away from enormously unusual family members.First and foremost, the process is confusingly subjective, despite all the objective criteria I was clever to examine. In norming sessions, I remember how lead readers would raise a candid ates ranking because he or she helped build the class. I never quite grasped how to build a class of freshmen from California the priority, it was explained in the first days pep talk while seem to prize the high-paying out-of-state students who are so attractive during times of a ripening budget gap. (A special team handled international applications. )In one norming session, pose readers questioned why a student who resembled a throng of applicants and had only a 3. 5 G. P. A. should rank so highly. Could it be because he was a nonresident and had wealthy parents? (He had taken one of the expensive volunteer trips to Africa that we were told should not act us. ) Income, an optional item on the application, would appear on the very first screen we saw, along with applicant name, address and family information. We also saw the high schools state performance ranking. All this can be revealing.Admissions officials were careful not to mention gender, ethnicity and race during ou r training sessions. Norming examples were our guide. Privately, I asked an officer point-blank What are we doing about race? She nodded sympathetically at my wonder but warned that it would be illegal to consider were looking at again, that phrase the bigger picture of the applicants life. After the next training session, when I asked about an Asian student who I thought was a 2 but had only received a 3, the officer noted Oh, youll get a chain reactor of them. She said the same when I asked why a low-income student with top grades and scores, and who had served in the Israeli army, was a 3. Which them? I had wondered. Did she mean Id see a lot of 4. 0 G. P. A. s, or a lot of applicants whose bigger picture would give off to advance them, or a lot of Jewish and Asian applicants (Berkeley is 43 percent Asian, 11 percent Latino and 3 percent black)? The idea behind multiple readers is to prevent any single reader from make an outlier decision. And some of the rankings I gave a ctual applicants were overturned up the reading hierarchy.I received an e-mail from the assistant film director suggesting I was not with the broadcast Youve got 15 outlier, which is quite a lot. Mainly you gave 4s and the final scores were 2s and 2. 5s. As I go on reading, I should keep an eye on the percentile report on the e-viewer and adjust my rankings accordingly. In a second e-mail, I was told I needed more 1s and referrals. A referral is a flag that a students grades and scores do not make the fill out but the application merits a special read because of stressors socioeconomic disadvantages that admissions offices can use to increase diversity.Officially, like all readers, I was to exclude nonage background from my consideration. I was simply to notice whether the student came from a non-English-speaking household. I was not told what to do with this information except that it may be a stressor if the personal statement revealed the student was having trouble adjusti ng to coursework in English. In such(prenominal) a case, I could refer the applicant for a special read. Why did I hear so many times from the assistant director? I think I got lost in the unspoken directives. nearly things cant be spelled out, but they have to be known. diligence readers must simply pick it up by osmosis, so that the process of detecting objective factors of disadvantage becomes tricky. Its an extreme version of the American non-conversation about race. I scoured applications for stressors. To better understand stressors, I was trained to look for the helpful personal statement that elevates a candidate. Here I encountered through-the-looking-glass moments an inspiring account of achievements may be less helpful than a report of the hardships that prevented the student from achieving better grades, test scores and honors.Should I range consistent excellence or better results at the end of a personal struggle? I applied both, depending on race. An underrepresented minority could be the phoenix, I decided. We were not to hold a lack of Advanced Placement courses against applicants. Highest attention was to be paid to the unweighted G. P. A. , as schools in low-income neighborhoods may not offer A. P. courses, which are given more weight in G. P. A. calculation. to date readers also want to know if a student has taken ambitious courses, and will consider A.P. s along with key college-prep subjects, known as a-g courses, required by the U. C. system. Even such objective information was opened to interpretation. During training Webinars, we argued over transcripts. I scribbled this exchange in my notes A reader ranks an applicant low because she sees an overcount in the students a-g courses. She thinks the courses were miscounted or perhaps counted higher than they should have been. Another reader sees an undercount and charges the first reader with essay to cut this girl down. The lead reader corrects Were not here to cut down a student. W ere here to invite factors that advance the student to a higher ranking. Another reader thinks the student is costly but we have so many of these kids. She doesnt see any leadership beyond the students own projects. Listening to these conversations, I had to wonder exactly how elite institutions define leadership. I was supposed to find this major criterion holistically in the application. Some students took leadership courses. Most often, it was demo in extracurricular activities.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Custom Coffee Essay

I believe Custom Coffee & deep brown mission is to establish a small caf where they and their customers could indulge their love of sincere coffee and fine chocolates. comely and Stacy, recent college roommates, wanted a stead that got a lot of foot traffic from shoppers and businesses. Their desire was to target a place near the university because they knew and understood those customers well. The purpose of the cafe is to serve grotesque coffee blends and specialty chocolates, and the business plan included purchasing lonesome(prenominal) fair trade coffee and chocolates made by a a few(prenominal) local suppliers.SWOT ANALYSISStrengths Having a good location where normal transportation is not a issue. The owners will be selling products that atomic number 18 considered to be good quality, near top of the line. Customers have the options of eating in or taking out their purchases. Weakness The shop is pretty small, and coffin nail only hold a certain amount of customers , and they will bring more funding to expand. Opportunity The opportunities are unlimited, expanding the menu to include scorched chocolates, desserts, tea and other beverages. If the businesses continue to grow, Bonnie & Stacy may be commensurate to start a small franchise. Threats I dont maintain any threats, unless a similar business moves in the same location.Bonnie & Stacy are doing all the right things to make their cafe affordable, and customer friendly. It is a nice place for friends and family to meet and chat while having a cupful of coffee or reading the newspaper. Comfort is always important to me, so I like the idea of them having comfortable seating. Putting up a website and blog page might be helpful to customers and potential customers, for reading and feedback. I dont believe that delivery would be a good thing right now, maybe in another vi months.Great job Bonnie & Stacy, you knew what you wanted and went for it. I wish you frequently success.

Movies Realism Literature Review

INTRODUCTION Cinemas argon the substitution spot of populates visual entertainment, acting as the average between the art of flick managing directors and the audiences chitchatking the geta counseling from actually manhood reality. It is at the flick theatre where flock enjoy themselves by watching plastic films that they whitethorn find interesting initially regard slight of the language, topical anaesthetic anestheticity or story musical note, as long as that unmatched particular characterisation is intriguing affluent to appoint them go to the cinema to get their delineation-o-meter filled with appealing crafts from more an(prenominal) directors.The cinemas as they be today argon far of importly contrary from what they cite intake ofd to be decades ago, as this highly profiting stemma has been going on since the 1850s, particularly originated in Eng prop to be the branch in public screening, although the commencement ceremony use of movie projecti on is unknown. However, putting aside the revolutionary cinema technology, one well-grounded movie is in general contri nonwithstandinged by the production group dedication and hard works. It should not matter if a movie is less use in impressive CGI since a plain movie precisely with proper cast and content, it could match with a movie rich in the technology.This kind of good content or storyline is an an new(prenominal)(prenominal) f means that has been influencing both the production to create such movie which is poor in fake yet astounding visual appearance hardly to stick with more on the content largely. It has similarly been observed that a good movie needs good script or dialogue other than the casts, for instance _V for Vendetta_ (2005), it did lay down a few scenes in CGI provided the real strength behind the success of this movie was the dialogue, its large(p) casts and the political theme.The brainpower of the topical anesthetics towards Malayan made movi es has continuously been criticized by Malaysians ourselves til now the irony is disdain the constant claim of Malaysians that they could tolerate Malaysian movies, this phenomenon gloss over exists, where people especially the seek subject, Malaysian audiences, stand on this issue of the precedents they ditch local anesthetic nigh local movies as un hard-nosed in contrast to its crux of escaping reality. Often in newspapers and mass media people could be seen writing to editors on how disappointed they were in local movies direction but praised the realism prognosis on external movies, especially of Hollywood.The reason movies or any other forms of visual entertainment were created was to add some kafkaesque factor base on the reality of the origination outside the movie, since the movie production shadowernot make money if they beneficial simply show what the audiences hurl gone with and through every day in their lives, nothing of new and fresh that could realis e the attention of the audiences. This search is anticipated to know why such enigma exists among the local viewers particularly, or something about the mentality of Malaysian audiences.When this oddment is inductanceed, on that point are parties touch on definitely. The obvious electric shock would be on production companies, with very narrow focus on local trade itself, these production companies would not be able to sustain longer presumption that this sentiment goes on. It is obvious enough since when there is lack of support and interest, irrefutable the unfair discernment by the Malaysians, the companies have no other way than to close down production, or face far worse spring of bankruptcy.It is not just the companies that would have to shut down, but in immediately the actors and actresses would have to start over something new to accommodate their lives, the fortunate enough to have backup form of income could still survive, but the bigger impact is the attentio n entrust be crumbled, as the industry has never been given a chance to prove that Malaysian movies could evolve and change the prospect of Malaysians in the first place.Secondly, local TV companies would also face difficulties and humongous put down to procure immaterial TV contents more to cater the coveting of viewers, as well as to fill in the absence or the sheer lack of local movie content. The negativity cycle continues to Malaysian government policy of extraneous content, with this very much impact slowly influencing the mindset of people, government will require thorough amendment of its policy to curb the remote content while preserving the local one, as although this phenomenon is still not chronic, however it is best to fear and prepare for the worst.Although the process of obtaining past researches on mistakable phenomenon yields nothing, hence this research is believed to be pioneer in digging deeper into this peculiarity. However, it is approximatelyly unders tood that some variables, or the causing factors are such similar age, education, place of nutriment, crop of significant others, different subcultures, and as well as level of exposure to unconnected movies and online reviews.Initial observation (pre research) shows that people living in cities are more susceptible to this phenomenon, most possibly collect to the flooding of foreign movies that are relatively better than local movies in general, whitethorn be reinforced by the pressure of others into forming a emblematic mentality. The Phenomenon Exactly like antecedently mentioned, the peculiarity that triggered the research in the first place was what causes the incongruity of denying local movies as realistic while at the same time concurring how realistic foreign movies are on the same bag that movies are not supposed to be real. on that point is no problem with the ticket sales or revenues of local movies, since local movies do receive high gross profit in local market, for instance Cicakman,, a hero-fantasy movie scored RM6. 7 million while still in the same movie theme, Spiderman scored USD 2. 1 million in Malaysian market, of course it is not fair to compare the fan base but this proved that there is no problem with the behavior of Malaysian viewers, but the detection of the people. In simpler meaning, they do watch local movies but eer undervalue every factor available in regards to foreign movies, and this research is meant to discover the plausible sources. Depende*nt Variable In determining what subordinate variables of this research are going to be, firstly it is important to identify what kind of entree the research is going to be conducted, and since the topic is planning to digging up the mind or filth of people, hence perception approach is the clear channel to analyze the Malaysians mentality on whether they find local movies are not realistic compared to foreign movies. Therefore it is obvious that the perception or mindset of the local Malaysians is the subject issue, which is ultimately the subordinate variables that would be touch on at the end of the cycle of factors.A perception is the result of many surrounding elements or influencing factors, whereby it is like a blank canvas gear up to be painted with the colors of perceived reality guessing the mindset. Hence, it is ironical that for a movie watcher to have biased insight against the local movies escaping reality nature, but what is wryer than that is through initial observation of this phenomenon some people do not have this stigma and because of that it further streng therefroms our decision of qualification the perception of audience as the leechlike variable where it will see changes when any independent variable is put as a trigger or cause.The perception of audience is also place to be the dependent variable due to the fact that they live in Malaysia, which are supposedly giving them the familiarity of the culture that is incorporat ed into the local movies, and since it is a psychology phenomenon we cannot directly peak ones mind but we can measure up the extent or the spread of this particular perception of movie audience. With all the rationale it is then decidedly that we are going to use the perception of audience as the dependent variable that changes accordingly to the identified independent variables to get us closer to the reality of the research topic. freelancer Variables As mentioned earlier, there are forces that act behind the shadow of the dependent variable which was the perception of unrealistic local movies among audience. There is not simply one but many credible elements that manipulate the outcome in various ways when these independent variables are put in interrogation to exploit the results in diversified changes. The factors below are notified to be of the most significant variables that could show momentous variety outcome on the dependent variable. ?Flooding of Foreign MoviesUndenia bly the ratio of foreign movies in Malaysia has significantly overshadowed the locally made movies. There is no restriction scarce to Hollywood movies, but belatedly many more movies from all over the world such as Middle Eastern, Bollywood, European, Hong Kong and Japan gets the attention of movie distributors in dispersing the foreign movies here in Malaysia. Judging from the overall movie titles per month basis, locally made movies, be it Malay, Tamil or Chinese movies are still on the minority scale compared to the available foreign titles which make up most of the showing list.With this much flooding of foreign movies that does not halt its presence here in Malaysia throughout the whole year, Malaysians are served with these foreign movies especially of Hollywood (being the most popular), therefrom it is definitely a crucial factor to count in the excess of the foreign movies may contribute to the perception of Malaysians that local movies are nowhere as realistic to forei gn movies. ?Influence of Friends There is no single individual on earth can stand loneliness hence the very reason why they need company.Friends do indeed play the most significant role of shaping the not only attitude but also the large percentage of perception pattern. Studies show that the go of friends frequently surpassed the cast expressed by family members particularly during the age of adolescent afterwards it would be a mixture of many factors. People also shares more secrets with their friends, so in this case people will be frequently affected by their friends mindsets to envision and share common view on a particular movie, as the one that people go and watch movies in concert are with friends.It is important to keep ones insight maybe on any significant issue in line therefore resulting in tough and impenetrable wall of perception on any(prenominal) issue that they agree on, and it could be unintentionally in the beginning but the effect of the friendship especial ly brotherhood-like bond will be concreting their perception on local movies realism. ?Pre-nurtured Stigma of Superior Others As citizens of a country that has gone through many colonial rules since half a millennium ago starting with Portuguese in Malacca in 1511, Malaysians (Malayans in the beginning independence) had always been conquered both physically and internally.These conquerors proved that they were not only boss in military and firepower technology, but also they left the impression that we the natives of our land could never stand on par with them in everything including culture, deeply corrupted within our ancestors perception. Unfortunately this stigma has been ancestrally passed down from one generation to another(prenominal) and even now some Malaysians do still consider the stinkpot of the other side to be greener.Although it sounds general but this perception is strong enough to be identified as one of the factors that could cause dissimilarities in the depen dent variable as they watch and analyze a movie through a programmed way of thinking although it is full of preconception. ?Technology utilize in Movies Realistic is commonly defined as aware or expressing awareness of things as they really are, and if we are to follow this variance of realistic then the technological aspect in a movie plays extremely important role to influence the perception of viewers.The technology of CGI and lately the assimilationof three dimensional perspectives have caught the wows and awes of audience. The main point in taking the technological aspect of movies is since foreign movies magically make something that was not there to appear, in other word, fake but are considered as realistic, then do the low technological local movies that do not go through this process of faking things out awkwardly being regarded as unrealistic?As weird as it may sound, this is what makes the technology employ in movies as an altering factor that could shift the mentali ty of viewers that local movies are not realistic out of the stable axis. The burden of a movie success is not just lying on the shoulders of the actor and actresses alone but a movie is the child of a director therefore it is the responsibility of a director to make sure the overall quality of the movie is intact. A movie direction is the result shown by the combined talent, skills and hard works of the production team including the casts, crews and producers.Bad lead and directing by a director will ultimately adduce dissatisfaction from the viewers and critics, for example. With this principle it is not surprising that it gets to be one of the factors that influence our dependent variable. look into Objective Who is not attracted to the animating pictures projected on a huge, wide silver screen and watch our imagination gets flashed on the screen? The world nowadays has changed drastically that entertainment is not only limited to the words written on paper, also not the vide o recording series nor movies, but it has expanded close to once before attainment fiction.Entertainment can be defined as a amusing activity that holds the attention of the people. Entertainment by itself holds wide definition so it is wise to peg down to a smaller scale of business aspect, since movies or films is a shell containing motion pictures to be viewed purely as a medium of art in the bigger entertainment industry. world has studied many things that are intriguing enough to them, either just for entertainment or educational purpose, and throughout the times academicians have regarded movie industry as a legit study field that provides the opportunity to control the elements of movies or films.The ever expanding cinema or Cineplex has turned motion pictures as one of the most profitable entertainment industry especially in Hollywood, which is the pioneer in almost any new film technology. digital format has taken the place of analogue film technology and the changes ca n be immediately seen, hardly nowadays a cinema used roll-film and viewers had to experience the visual scratch anymore since cinema projectors had switched to a digital video projection as well as smartly stimulated surround sound.Every moment passes the scenes of movie industry is changing, one hour next will be different than one second before, as the entertainment industry especially in the movies form will keep on evolving to cater people needs. Research Questions _Is the flooding of foreign movies causing a person to have biased perception on local movies? _ Through this misgiving we could get a more in-depth desire on the relationship between the foreign movies invasion on Malaysian shores and its impact on the perception of Malaysians.This question is remarkable since there are people who think of local movies are more realistic than foreign movies, despite the fact that Malaysian cinemas are constantly showing foreign titles more than local movies. It is important to re late the over exposure of foreign movies inclusive of the reviews and other promotional attempts with the impact on the viewers so we could assess the depth or extent of these two variables. Does influence of friends affect the mindset of Malaysians to underestimate realism of local movies?Friendship forces a person in that circle to behave, think and perceive things on the same line with very minimal deviation. It is no wonder what friend factor could influence ones perception, and this is why it is beneficial to know how far do friends play their parts to mold each other by formal a general idea that is to be shared by the circle, or in the process there is a possibility that the impact is O.K. up by other hidden factors, unseen until they strike. We will be able to find out whether the question will bring us closer to yes or no by analyzing the answers from the samples during the research.Does the stigma of superior others instilled untimely impose biased perception on local mov ies? As mentioned previously under independent variables, it is widely known that even though through words Malaysians may deny that they do not think outsiders are always ahead of us, but their behaviors may tell otherwise and possibly describe the true perception. Therefore, we would measure how far this one particular stigma is affecting the phenomenon we are trying to study. The caustic remark is too great to be cast aside since realistic factor in local movies can never be as close as o those of foreign movies according to the phenomenon, but by obtruding our definition of the nature of movie which is as an escape to real world, is not it supposed to be otherwise? Is the perception of realistic factor of local movies shaped by the technology used in movies? The evolution in cinema technology has always started outside of Malaysia, thus one of the reasons why there is not much newer technology used in local movies. However, is there any basis in theorizing a movie is not reali stic when it does not use sophisticated technology? If there is, will it be affecting whether people like the movie or otherwise?This question should be tackled since most viewers in particular the Malaysian viewers do not have the ability to analyze movies from education and artistic aspect, but often lay opinion based on what they see with naked eyes, which should conform its nature of entertainment. Does directors proficiency have any impact on what people think of realism factor of local movies? plainly like the casts, directors do have their own fans and followers who support them in their career, and just like the actor and actresses also, the industry appreciate and recognize directors section as the most important aspect of movie success.Their skills differ thus the reputation they have been building is identified as one of the question on whether they do take tolls on people perception of local movies to be deemed as not realistic enough, satirically going against safet y valve core purpose of watching movies. Reference cognizance. In Wikipedia. Retrieved February 22nd, 2010 from http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Perception Dictionary. com (2010, February 22nd). Perception Define Perception at Dictionary. com Retrieved from http//dictionary. reference. com/browse/perception Internet. om (2010, February 26th) What is Movie panache? Retrieved from http//www. webopedia. com/TERM/m/moviemode. html_ BoxOffice Mojo, (2010, February 26th). Species (1995). Retrieved from http//www. boxofficemojo. com/movies/? id=species. htm BoxOffice Mojo (2010, February 26th). Species II Retrieved from http//www. boxofficemojo. com/movies/? id=species2. htm BoxOffice Mojo (2010, February 28th). Spider-Man (2002) International Box Office Results Retrieved from http//www. boxofficemojo. com/movies/? rapscallion=intl&id=spiderman. tm Intro2u Blog (2010, February 28th). Cicakman 2 Retrieved from http//www. intro2u. net/new/2008/08/cicakman-2/ Syed Ali, Syed Azwan, (2010, Mar ch 3rd). local Film Industry Moving Ahead Retrieved March 4th, 2010 from Bernama website http//www. bernama. com/bernama/v5/newsfeatures. php? id=479303 M. Varkevisser, Corlien Pathmanathan, Indra and Brownlee, Ann (2003). Formulation of Research Objectives, Designing and Conducting Health System Research Projects, (Module 6) Retrieved from http//www. idrc. ca/en/ev-33011-201-1-DOTOPIC. html_

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Karl Marx Essay

Karl Marx did not retrieve in god. He was well known for his ideas about alienation. He believed everyone was born with a creative spirit, i.e. species being. Conflict is to fight or to battle, Karl Marx was the founder of conflict theory, fit in to sources conflict theory argues that the competition of groups and individuals for power and wealth is a of import process shaping the social structure. Conflict is manifested through Marx by who gets what and why, Marx argued that the jab market was framed by class conflict. The capitalist class, which owned the substance of production, promoted division of force to maximize their profits and to disempowered workers.Karl Marx did not believe in god. He was well known for his ideas about alienation. He believed everyone was born with a creative spirit, i.e. species being. Conflict is to fight or to battle, Karl Marx was the founder of conflict theory, accord to sources conflict theory argues that the competition of groups and indiv iduals for power and wealth is a central process shaping the social structure. Conflict is manifested through Marx by who gets what and why, Marx argued that the ride market was shaped by class conflict. The capitalist class, which owned the operator of production, promoted division of repel to maximize their profits and to disempowered workers.Karl Marx did not believe in god. He was well known for his ideas about alienation. He believed everyone was born with a creative spirit, i.e. species being. Conflict is to fight or to battle, Karl Marx was the founder of conflict theory, match to sources conflict theory argues that the competition of groups and individuals for power and wealth is a vestigial process shaping the social structure. Conflict is manifested through Marx bywho gets what and why, Marx argued that the tote market was shaped by class conflict. The capitalist class, which owned the mean of production, promoted division of labor to maximize their profits and to disempowered workers.Karl Marx did not believe in god. He was well known for his ideas about alienation. He believed everyone was born with a creative spirit, i.e. species being. Conflict is to fight or to battle, Karl Marx was the founder of conflict theory, accord to sources conflict theory argues that the competition of groups and individuals for power and wealth is a complete process shaping the social structure. Conflict is manifested through Marx by who gets what and why, Marx argued that the labor market was shaped by class conflict. The capitalist class, which owned the representation of production, promoted division of labor to maximize their profits and to disempowered workers.Karl Marx did not believe in god. He was well known for his ideas about alienation. He believed everyone was born with a creative spirit, i.e. species being. Conflict is to fight or to battle, Karl Marx was the founder of conflict theory, match to sources conflict theory argues that the competit ion of groups and individuals for power and wealth is a fundamental process shaping the social structure. Conflict is manifested through Marx by who gets what and why, Marx argued that the labor market was shaped by class conflict. The capitalist class, which owned the mode of production, promoted division of labor to maximize their profits and to disempowered workers.In sociology the word grow means the totality of learned, socially transmitted knowledge. It kitty be defined as the ways of thinking, the ways of acting and material objects that together shape a persons way of feeling. Material culture refers to physical culture artifacts, i.e. things that you clear touch, cars, handbags and clothes. Non-material culture refers to artifact that exists in a culture, e.g. norms, values, religion rules,moral lyric poem and knowledge. In sociology this is referred to several processes that a culture uses to shape its members members thoughts, feeling and behaviors. Abortion is con sidered part of non-material culture because it is an artifact that exists in cultures its something that cant be touch.Many religions view abortion as a sin due to the fact that abortion is the finish of an early pregnancy by various methods religions view it as the killing of a life. Others salutary view it as moral issues despise the legality of abortion. Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetus from the uterus. It can occur in two ways advisedly which is the term abortion refers to or it can occur unexpectedly, which is considered a miscarriage. It is do in two ways medically in a clinic or with pills. Abortion falls into values and religion rules because many people believe it is something that shouldnt be done because who ar we to take a life away, and as I previously stated others view it as shoot because a fetus is consider a life from the moment it is conceived. jibe to Julie Cline in the article Teen Abortion from the Chicago Tribute, the contr everyplacesy over abortion is incredible still until this day people against abortion are trying there best to change the fact that abortion is legal. save according to Cline others believes abortion has its benefits. Studies show teen pregnancy has gone up in the last few years and that more than 300,000 teens receive abortions, that is pertain to 1/3 of the abortions performed yearly. This article states abortion should stay legal because it keeps unloved children from coming into this world and teens from ruining their futures.

Business Law Essay

On Mon mean solar day, A proposed to B to buy Bs cable car for $12,000 by post. It is primary to take a fashion mingled with an invitation to hide and an carry, as an strain once take for granteded creates a legally bandaging contract in which does non apply to the supposed word meaning of an invitation to treat. Therefore, the issue is whether the proposal from A is an tender or an invitation to treat.An twist is defined in Preston Corpn Sdn Bhd v Edward Leong 1982 as anintimation of exitingness by an offerer to enter into a legally binding contract. Its terms either expressly or impliedly must indicate that it is to be become binding on the offerer as soon as it has been accepted by the offeree. The all-important(a) factor that determines whether something amounts to an offer is the intention to be climb up, which is usually sh admit by the wording.Conversely, an invitation to treat is a proposal to negotiate or an attempt to receive proposals. The some personat e extending the invitation is merely indicating that he/she is volitioning to enter into negotiations but is non skirt to accept any offers made.Nonetheless, in the English of Smith v Hughes 1871, the motor inn emphasized that the important thing is non a partys real intentions but how a ten up to(p) somebody would view the situation. This is collectable mainly to common sense as each party would not wish to breach his side of the contract if it would make him/her blameworthy to damages.The flesh expose of As letter are omitted, thus devising it the to a greater extent than difficult to assess the express and implied terms of the proposal, which would come in adroit to determine whether or not thither is an intention to be bound. Although buyers may prepare the inclination to negotiate on the terms, rarely will at that place be one who will do so after initiating a proposal. Once taken the initiative and had gone through the hassle to spare out a letter and have it sent, this shows an expression of willingness to buy thence it is plausible that there is an intention to be bound. But of course this would be my personal presumptions as a reasonable person.Wrapping up, in my opinion, this proposal from A is suggested to be an offer instead of an invitation to treat and once there is an acceptance from B, a mere organization will be formed. some prerequisites are mandatory to make an offer valid, thus leads on to the adjacent gaucherie.The letter of offer from A was misplaced by the postman and picked up by Bs neighbor, C who passes B the letter on Friday. Logically an offer must be ac fellowshipd by the offeree to be valid. The concern here is whether theoffer from A was communicated and validated.As stated in Barnes. et al. (2006, p.166) The act of communicating the offer indicates that the offeror is willing to be bound by its terms. On the other hand, a non-communicated offer may be evidence that the offeror has not yet decides to enter into a binding agreement.The general rule of acceptance is that performance of the signaled act does not amount to an acceptance unless the party performing the act did so with knowledge of the existence of an offer. If otherwise, a party could find himself bound to the terms of a contract of which he was entirely unaware. However, there is a case for making an exception in the case of a unilateral contract, at least(prenominal) when performance of the act provokenot subject the performing party to any disadvantage.Gibbons v Proctor 1891 is an English Contract rightfulness case that deals with an offer, via advertisement, and whether or not a person who does not know of the offer can accept the offer if they complete the terms of the offer. The case has also been cited as laterality for the proposition that acceptance in ignorance of an offer is effective that a person who gives information for which a reward has been offered can claim it even though at the time of giving it he had no knowledge of the offer of reward.Nevertheless, this offer from A is a sort of bilateral contract, in which A is promising to pay B $12,000 for another promise from B for his car. As the letter of offer from A was in the hands on C and it did not reached B as intended therefore there is no actual dialogue and the offer is scarcely considered valid. Common sense tells us that if B had not veritable the offer from A, there is no way B would learn of As offer and let altogether to reply to it. An offer made through the post will not be effective until it is received and read by the offeree.In conclusion, my dissertation is that the offer from A was neither communicated nor valid till Friday when B received the letter from C.On Tuesday, B proposed to sell his car for $11,000 to A by post and the post reached A on the following day. In the outcome where B proposed the offer upon acknowledgement of the offer made by A, it would be regarded as a counter offer, which in turn woul d be a distinction to acceptance. But this will not apply in this case as Bs proposal was made originally the sense of As offer. As a result, this proposal here will be subjected to whether or not the proposed is an offer and a legitimated one.In the preceding(prenominal) issue, the buyer, A is making a proposal to the prospective seller, B and more often than not it would be an offer. When the roles are reversed, the proposal could be either an offer or an invitation to treat, hence, the need to highlight the differences.As presented in foliate 2, the explanation of an offer is unambiguous. However, for further illustration on invitation of treat, in ruffed grouse v Crittenden, the suspect was charged with an offence of offering wild birds for change with the aid of advertisement contrary to the Protection of Birds Act 1954. He was bring not guilty since he had not offered the birds for sale the advertisement was just an invitation to treat. Adding on, in Fisher v. Bell 196 1, the defendant was charged with the offence of offering for sale a flick knife contrary to section 11 of the travail of Offensive Weapons Act 1959. He had displayed the knife in his shop window with a price ticket behind it. It was held that the defendant had not committed the offence as, in displaying the knife in his shop window he had not offered it for sale. These two examples of invitation to treat opposed to the common, non legal, understanding of the term offer.Goods in shop windows or on display and goods advertised are usually invitation to treat which invites people to make offers and where the seller may submit to or not to sell. Chances are that Bs proposal to A is an offer because if otherwise, he would not had taken the trouble to pen it shoot down and have it sent. As previous case, this is merely my assumptions as a reasonable person.The letter intended for A from B was distinctly communicated as it reached A thefollowing day, Wednesday.In conclusion, my pers pective is that the proposal made by B is an offer and a valid one as the offer was acknowledge by the offeree, A.A fax of acceptance was sent by A to B in regards of the $11,000 offer for Bs car. However, was never printed out due to paper failure in Bs fax machine. This is evidently an acceptance as it mirrors the offer from B. When an acceptance is effective can be critically important as in most occurrences, the offeror has discretion to revoke the offer at any time before acceptance.The general rule is that an acceptance has no effect until it is communicated to the offeror. In Powell v Lee 1908, the defendants who were the managers of a school had decided to appoint the complainant headmaster. one of the managers told the plaintiff of the decision without authorization. Subsequently however, the defendants reversed their decision and appointed a third party in which the plaintiff was suing for breach of contract. The plaintiffs action failed as for there to be a concluded contract, it was innate that there should be a communication made by the body of the persons to the selected candidate.By using the facsimile machine to circularize acceptance, it is an effective elbow room of direct communication and no contracts will be created unless it is received by the offeror. In other words, the acceptance is not complete when the message is communicate but only when it is received.However, in this case, A must have reasonably believed that his acceptance was communicated but this is not so because of the fault of B, then B may be estopped from saying that he did not receive the acceptance. This is clearly the fault of B as fax is a technologically go method of communication and B will generally know at once that the fax has not been communicated.The balance of faults weighs more heavily on B, hence the postal rule can be applied in which the acceptance was effective once A made the fax and anagreement between A and B will surface.However, in the event where As fax had been printed but not acknowledged by B for lead days. Postal rule will not apply in this circumstance as not only is it an instantaneous form of communication but, under the traditional contract principles, if the offer or circumstances do not indicate otherwise, the means the offeror used to converse the offer is the impliedly authorized means for accepting.In other words, unless B had specifically request for other form of communication, it is reasonable for B to assume that A would send his acceptance by post and would not be waiting by the fax machine. In this circumstance, the acceptance is only complete when B acknowledges it three days later.However, the case of Tenax Steamship Co Ltd v Owners of the Motor vessel Brimnes 1974 contradicts the statement above as it appears that it is not necessary for the offeror to have read the message. If this is applied, the acceptance will be completed on the day itself when A had faxed it instead of three days when B re ads it.Personally, as a reasonable person, I would not agree on the latter as it is extremely unjust for B. There are numerous methods of communication, the instantaneous kinds, e.g. via telephone, email as well as the non-instantaneous kinds. No one would be able to predict the form of communication adopted by the other party so B could not possibly be hanging about the room where the fax machine was situated in, waiting for As reply. Thus, if B is ignorant of the acceptance, the acceptance would not be of use.On Friday, B posted his acceptance to sell his car for the offer made by A on Monday. The letter was not received by A for two weeks.When an acceptance is to be made through the postal system, the postal rule does apply in which will results in an agreement on Friday regardless ofwhether A receives it or not. This peculiar rule developed by the English virtue has been first enunciated in the case of Adams v Lindsell 1818, where an acceptance is completed as soon as posted. In Adams v Lindsell 1818, the defendant wrote to the plaintiff offering to sell him wool and asked him to reply by post. The plaintiff replied on the 5th but the letter reached the defendant on the 9th. meantime on the 8th, not hearing anything from the plaintiff, the defendant sold the wool to a third party. The plaintiff sued the defendant and the court held that the acceptance was effective when the letter was posted and so there was a contract and the defendant was in breach of it. Cited from Chandran (p.24)Saying as much, this contract will not be valid as there was previously an agreement made between A and B when A faxed his acceptance. The contract between A and B is where A will pay $11,000 for Bs car and B would have to let go for $11,000 as stated in rogue 4. No doubt it would be hard on B if he could be bound even without knowing his offer had been accepted. Nonetheless, as mentioned it was his own slip-up that results in the unknown bound.Since the contract for $11,00 0 is valid, there would be no existence of subject matter of contract which is Bs car in the $12,000 contract and there is no way B will be able to sell the same car twice without breaching the contract. credit entry LISTBarnes, J.D., et al. _Law for bloodline_, 9th Edition. New York McGraw-Hill IrwinBond, H.J., et al. _Business Law_, 2nd Edition. Great Britain Blackstone Press Limited capital of the join KingdomChandran, R. Introduction to Business Law in Singapore, 2nd Edition. New York McGraw-Hill IrwinFrey, M.A., et al. _Introduction to the Law of Contracts_, fourth Edition. United States Thomson Delmar Learning New YorkKelly, D., et al. _The Cavendish Q & A Series Business Law_, 1995. Great Britain Cavendish Publishing Limited LondonKeenan, D_. 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