Tuesday, January 29, 2019
Wilhelm Conrad roentgen was innate(p) on March 27, 1845, in Lennop, a small town in the Rhineland of Germany. His father was a wealthy textile merchant, his mother was a Dutch lady born in Appledoorn, Holland. Du lot his boyhood years Wilhelm already had a heating plant for investigates, but above all he loved record. In schooltime he was not very(prenominal) successful, not so much because of his achievement but because of his behavior. He had trouble with his teachers, resisting their authority which finally led to his dismissal. Wilhelm terminate his school years without any certificate.Because he wanted to pursue an academic circumspectioner, he had to find another way to achieve his goal. A booster dose suggested the bracingly established Poly-Technical Institute in Zurich, Switzerland. There, he applied himself and substantially earned a degree in mechanical engineering. He did not know what he wanted to do with this degree, so for awhile he did nothing. He caro uti lize with his friends. It was during this time that he met Berthe Anna Ludwig, who posthumousr became his wife. He decided to extend with post-graduate studies with the encouragement of Dr. August Kuntz.By studying hard and concentrating on the occupation at hand, he was able to obtain a doctorate in physics with a thesis on gasses. When Dr. Kuntz judge a military capability at the University of Wuerzburg, Germany, he persuaded Dr. Roentgen to go with him. In Wuerzburg he could not find work, so he tried his luck in ii other cities. even sotually the Institute of Physics at the Wuerzburg University did offer him the coveted professorial chair, which he accepted, and in 1888 Professor Roentgen was elected premier of the University. He taught during the day and spent many even outs experimenting in his lab.On the evening of November 8, 1895, while experimenting with electric current flow, using a spark conductor, he generated high voltages in a partially evacuated glass tube. The tube began to glow. He noticed that crystals of barium platino cyanide scattered on the table began to overhaul off baseless when the tube glowed. An experienced researcher, he knew he was on to something. Further tests showed that paper, wood, aluminum and some other materials were transparent to these strange glows. Even at a distance of 2 meter the rays were still stabbing a wooden door.The professor realized that he was dealing with infrared electro-magnetic rays, which under certain conditions could stimulate certain materials to fluorescence. He exposed everything he could think of to these strange new rays, among them his weight box, a wire whirl in a box and many different materials. He worked standardized a man possessed and he even slept in his lab. He found that egest glass is permeable to light but not to these rays, while wood stopped the light, but the rays passed through it. Then his thoughts dour towards jams.The bones seemed to screen the surrounding tissue papers. This massive denudation enabled man to date inside the human body for the first time. Dr. Roentgen was uncertain of the nature of his findings, so he called this phenomena X-Rays . He took a highly systematic come up to his studies and his experiments. He published a paper about the discovery and in December 1895 he held a demonstration with his first X-Ray externalises, along with one of his wifes hand. The discovery caused much excitement in scientific and health check communities throughout the world.Scientists in many countries started to experiment with these new rays, and progressive doctors very quickly used them as a diagnostic tool. A colleague, Dr. Kollicker, suggested in January 1896 to call these new rays after its discoverer. So it was done in Germany, a doctor orders a Roentgen picture, which is taken in the Roentgen department of the hospital&8212&8212- to this day. During the next decades it became obvious that X-Rays caused injury to various h uman tissue and to vision. Radioactivity was at that time not universe related to these new rays.Many researchers developed radiation burns and crab louse more than c people died. These tragedies led to greater awareness of radiation hazards for health care workers. premature in the new century X-Ray equipment was being encased, and lead barriers and lead aprons were being introduced after the hazards became known. All this eventually led to a new branch of science Radiobiology. In 1900 Professor Roentgen accepted a position at the University of Munich. One year later he received the first Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery of X-Rays in Stockholm, Sweden.When his parents died, he inherited 2 million marks, which elevated him to the upper classes in the unripened German Empire. He traveled extensively with his wife to Italy and France, but nigh often they spent their vacation in Switzerland. He had fame and wealth and a feudal hunting lodge, but Dr. Roentgen was never re ally riant in Munich. He spent very little time furthering his research. Early in the century tuberculosis was still rampant. X-Ray examinations in wandering(a) units throughout Germany detected the disease early and prevented it from spreading. Soon X-Rays were widely used in medicine, industry and cientific research. It became an important tool in the fight against cancer in the form of radiation therapy, along with surgery and chemotherapy. Today estimator tomography is used in medicine and material testing. Since the 1960s X-Ray TV has enabled surgeons to monitor their operations. In the mid 70s micro-electronics entered the field of radiography. Today botanists use figurer tomography to examine trees for disease, and archaeologists to examine fossils, relics, artifacts and monuments. Dr. Roentgen once took an X-Ray picture of his gun. Perhaps he had a sense of things to come.One can exactly imagine airport security today without X-Rays. It is still the only trick up that w ill detect an object of potential danger in baggage or on someones person. X-Rays are not only generated here on earth the universe has been full of X-Rays for billions of years. On June 1, 1990 an X-Ray satellite was launched to search the structure and the developments of planets and the stars of the heavens. Dr. Roentgens wife, Bertha, died in 1919 after a lengthy illness, during which he had just about lived isolated in Munich. War and inflation had eroded his small fortune.Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen died four years later, on February 10, 1923 in Munich at the age of 78. His monumental discovery made a considerable contribution to the welfare of mankind. It similarly helps to unravel the secrets of nature he had loved so well. DISCOVERY OF XRAY. In late 1895, a German physicist, W. C. Roentgen was working with a cathode ray tube in his laboratory. He was working with tubes similar to our fluorescent light bulbs. He evacuated the tube of all air, filled it with a special gas, an d passed a high electric voltage through it. When he did this, the tube would recrudesce a fluorescent glow.Roentgen shielded the tube with heavy smuggled paper, and found that a green colored fluorescent light could be seen coming from a screen setting a few feet away(p) from the tube. He realized that he had produced a previously unknown invisible light, or ray, that was being emitted from the tube a ray that was capable of transit through the heavy paper covering the tube. Through additional experiments, he also found that the new ray would pass through most substances casting shadows of solid objects on pieces of film. He named the new ray X-ray, because in mathematics X is used to indicated he unknown quantity. In his discovery Roentgen found that the X-ray would pass through the tissue of domain leaving the bones and metals visible. One of Roentgens first experiments late in 1895 was a film of his wife Berthas hand with a ring on her finger (shown below on right). The new s of Roentgens discovery spread quickly throughout the world. Scientists everywhere could duplicate his experiment because the cathode tube was very well known during this period. In early 1896, X-rays were being utilized clinically in the United States for such things as bone fractures and gun shot wounds.
Monday, January 28, 2019
In this letter by George Bernard Shaw, the author conveys brilliant detail that is emphasized about the final stage of his baffle. Within this text, the authors view towards his mother and her cremation is utilized by the practice session of diction, detail, and imagery that serves to express the authors feeling of sentimentality and rebirth from the enrapture tone he attributed his mother with.Throughout the excerpt, the author begins his oration in an admirable tone. The author portrays his status towards his mothers cremation as a confirmative outlook in brio. With the excessive usage of diction, the author describes what lies beyond the oven door of the crematory oven as wonderful, while other quite a little sought it as horrifying to see it. Shaw describes the oven being No stentorian draught. No flame. No fuel. rather, with the appearance of cool, clean, sunny of the coffin. Shaw evokes a finger of diction that is viewed with full of life. The cremation is depicted as a beautiful drop same pentecostal tongue suggests the mother as a spirit climb from the coffin with the rebirth of life itself. By the presentation of diction use with the mother being rebirthed with attribution of new life, the authors attitude can be best described in a blithesome manner.Although Shaw describes the rebirth of his mother with the excessive usage of diction, he also attributes the cremation with vivid detail of imagery. Shaws usage of imagery with his mothers cremation gives the reviewer an insight of the authors attitude towards his mother. When Shaw describes the coffin of streaming ribbons of garnet dismal lovely flame, smokeless and eager, like pentecostal tongues, his view of imagery suggests fire is a symbol of life and that on that point is a spirit locomote from the coffin.Shaw also notes his mother became that beautiful fire, before the cook swept her up into a sieve and shook her out so that there was a heap of dust and a heap of bone straps, ma kes the imagery that Shaw conveys to his mother as a spirit being humorous. What Shaw portrays through these details is that by the burning of his mother, the corpse is then observed full of energy and life itself, allowing her rebirth into a spiritual figure a mockery of skeletal frame and bone. By the use of imagery, Shaw is trying to emphasize that the quality of the cremation makes it better compared to a burial.Despite Shaws admirable and blissful attitude throughout his oration, there was detail among the letter that gives the reader a more insightful plan of the attitude portrayed to his mother and her cremation. When Shaw addresses O grave, where is thy victory?, it gives the reader the sense that the grave is provided only with death compared to the cremation that allows the spirit to somewhat escape the remains and be set out as free, giving the crematory positive connotations. This puny detail shows the difference of the grave and crematory that gives an insightful att itude towards what the author is trying to convey about his mother and her crematory. In all, Shaws strange appreciation of the event attributes him with the recognition of victory of life over death from releasing the spirit of his mother through the fire of the crematory.
Thursday, January 24, 2019
Michaela Lawes SOUTH1A 11 Jacqui Godfrey Hypnotherapy &amp Counselling Skills mental faculty 21850 words A mortalalised introduction go forth al shipway be more than stiff. Discuss. Base your answer on theoretical concepts and techniques presented in class. If it is true that we all see the same thing and go steady it as different, if we move to stimuli in a unique way, beca role a modify proof would prove more effective. Would an awkward client respond to a linguistically passive speak to? Would a direct and logically structured induction gain their send and introduce them pure tone at ease?The Hypno healer get out seek to understand their client, interpreting both oral and non- vocal signals. They allow excessively have to contend with the way our brain interprets impertinent information. Once the individuals personality is unders aliked, there ar a number of verbal techniques that the Hypnotherapist usher out utilise in lodge to strike the outflan k results from the induction process. It would appear that the personalised induction is effective but this perhaps depends on whether the Hypnotherapist has ascertained the true nature of their client.One argona where the Hypnotherapist can start to understand the subject of person they are seeking to get to would be to ascertain the predominate temper within their client. Modalities are a classification of sensory perception. These are listed as optical, auditory, kinaesthetic, olfactory and gustatory. When a person is assimilating external information they allow seek to disseminate that information using a ascendant modality. There are many ways in which they will reveal this through dustup, speech, gestures and even eye movements.NLP gurus Bandler and grind aptly call this the language of our minds. A person with a possessive optic modality will tend to use phrases that are be with optic terms such as I see or The sky looks turquoise If this persons look are flav our up the right as they are explaining something to you they are creating a visual representation in their heads. Robert Dilts in his article Eye Movements and NLP recites The nigh common application of eye positions in NLP is to determine the delineative strategies a person is using in order to think or make a decision.Since many aspects of peoples thinking processes are unconscious to them, offhanded eye movements can be an extremely important part of eliciting and imitate a persons inner strategies for decision making, learning, motivation, memory, etc. The eyes maybe a poetical window to the soul but they are also an unfailing insight into an individuals dominant modality. Using these linguistic and visual clues the Hypnotherapist can begin to relate to their client on his or her apt level. They can gain the trust of the client by charming to their dominant modality.If the client had a dominant kinaesthetic modality they would have a more tactile and emotionally attune d personality, they would speak in a emollient lower tone of voice than the fast talking, higher toned visual personality. Would there be conflict if the hypnotherapist used a quick thinking, extremely imaginative visual show up to the tactile and get holding kinaesthetic? peradventure yes, when one is trying to access the brain at an unconscious level, certainly it would be more productive to be in harmony with your client in order to get the best therapeutic results.Josie Hadley and Carol Staudacher change course By using similar language and reinforcing the induction with certain kinds of images, you are making sure the subject can relate to the induction and live an affinity for it Whilst using the dominant modality to gain an affinity with the client, the best results will come from gradually introducing language into an induction that will appeal to all of the senses. This technique is called compounding, and is a crucial tool in engendering a deep trance.The client is being invited to experience a linked scope of events during their induction that will encourage them to lose themselves in the scenarios being adverted by appealing to all of the senses. So whilst the client may, through their language, both verbal and non verbal, have the olfactory as their main modality, if they are subjected via the induction to visit or imagine a taste then this will remove all of their senses for a more effective induction.This supposes that hypnotherapist has initially ascertained the dominant modality in order to gain the trust of their client and then proceeded to introduce a multi sensory screed that opposes the idea of a fully personalised induction. It is recognized that there are two types of mesmeric induction, namely, permissive and disdainful. It is utter that traditional hypnosis is generally lordly. The induction is concise and uses direct language and little creative imagery. This is a favourite style of the stage hypnotist as it lends its elf favourably to the quick and direct nature of induction.A proponent of this technique was Dave Elman, whose authoritarian technique was used by doctors and dentists to calm their patients. It was quick and to the point. When thinking of the authoritarian style as a use for todays hypnotic induction, it would be suited to use with a nervous or anxious person. Perhaps the controlled style reassures the nervous client that the therapist is in control, they fill out what they are doing and therefore it will follow that they will be more inclined to follow the suggestions made by the therapist.Instead of you may start to feel your eyelids are becoming heavy the authoritarian onward motion will film as your eyelids are heavy The logical and concise nature of the language used in this type of induction is also a helpful when presented with a skeptic of the science behind hypnosis, the style does away with too vivid imagery and curtails the use of metaphor, allowing a sense of logica lity to the dubious.This direct style also lends itself well to addiction therapy as ascertaining their modality can be difficult due to the personality and cerebral defame created by the addiction, for example, alcohol abuse. The repetitive and authoritarian style of induction Karle and Boys suggest the mere act or suggestion of an attempt to give up, say, fastball will work whether personalised or not as they will respond well to any form of treatment, because any ritual will perform the functions they seek Again it would seem that a personalised induction is not so important in this type of case.The permissive nestle is much more widely used in therapeutic hypnotherapy as it can play with linguistic metaphor and imagery based on the clients personality and dominant modality thus creating a much more personalised hypnotic experience. Michael Caroll in his essay The coordinate of Permissive Hypnotherapy states Rapport is an important aspect of permissive hypnotherapy because t he hypnotherapist is going to play the client to trance rather than just direct the clients experience.To orchestrate the client to trance the hypnotherapist mirrors the clients imaginative preferences through verbal conversation allowing the hypnotherapist access to the physiology and state associated with trance, so when the client unconsciously follows the hypnotherapists lead he/she will be accessing a trance like state The leading hypnotherapist in this type of therapy was Milton H Erickson, he could be verbalize to be the inventor of the personalised hypnotic experience. Rapport building underpins this type of approach and this is what Erickson sought to gain in his sessions.The permissive style will use an indirect approach in order to gain the trust of their clients without appearing too authoritarian. Hypnotic suggestion is wrapped up in metaphor and creative language coupled with varying vocal tonality. It was Ericksons theory that people must participate in their ther apy. The true essence of a personalised induction His screed would incorporate linguistic techniques in order to gain a rapport. There are several examples of this. Using the clients dominant modality (which are discussed earlier in this essay).Convincers which are used in such a way as to make the client think they are in control of their induction when in fact they are being indirectly guided into a trance. A convincer may read as this I can see that your eyes are beginning to close and you are relaxed. Anchoring a key-word that will shoot d aver a repeated response, for example, the client could be asked to feel the summer cheer on their skin throughout the induction so as to receive feelings of warmth and contentment. This could change according to the dominant modality of the client, whether visual, kinaesthetic, olfactory and so on. Presuppositons and double binds are a clever way of allowing the client to feel in control of their destiny through contradictory linguistic s ignals. A client seeking to give up a bad clothes may be told you may wish to give up x tomorrow, next week or next month when this happens is entirely up to you. This type of therapy works well as it allows the client to participate in their own induction. It allows for the uniqueness of the individual as to how they are induced which would for sure be more effective.It would be too simplistic to argue that a personalised approach would be wholly effective as compared to a generic induction, but, in the main, it can offer a wide ranging approach for the therapist. In general, we use only a very small sum of verbal communication, much is achieved through body language and non verbal signals. In hypnotherapy the hypnotist does not have these non verbal tools to hand in an induction and therefore has to rely on linguistic techniques such as modality, metpahor or tone of voice in order to get the most effective results for their client.The different techniques found within the perso nalised approach, such as the use of modalities and indirect/direct language allows the client a proactive approach to his or her own induction. Michael Heap writes Regarding the legitimate therapeutic uses of hypnotherapy it is importantthat the therapists actions and communications be in keeping with context and should gift to the creation of the appropriate expectations, thus maximizing the patients receptivity to suggestion.For example the therapist would have to take in circumstance the mannerisms of the client, even they way they are dressed and what they do for work and pleasure. They also have to consider that the client may not be behaving as they normally would due to nerves or the differences between their public and personal persona. They may be acting or behaving differently than is normal. However the hypnotherapist will surely learn to gauge their approach as they gain more experience.There is a place for the generic and direct approach as discussed in the essay, but the effectiveness of getting the client themselves to participate in their own induction is surely a more interesting and varied approach which lends itself to a more effective induction. References Hadley &amp Staudbacher Hypnosis for Change -1996, current Harbinger Publications, USA Heap &amp Dryden Hypnotherapy A handbook 1991, Oxford University Press, UK Karle &amp Boys Hypnotherapy A Practical Handbook 1987 Free crosstie Books, UK
Monday, January 21, 2019
I promise that if I go onto Facebook or Twitter right now, I could date almost every star of you on t present. When person says kindly network, the beginning(a) site to come to your mind is Facebook, right? Facebook is now the most identifiable accessible network, and according to Facebook statistics its recently reached over 300 meg active users. Combined worldwide, they wholly spend over six one million million minutes online every day. I got most of my in yearation about social networking from facts on file. A statistic from the Pew Internet Projects inquiry on social networking found that as of December 2012, 67% on online adults use social networking sites.The earlier social networks, such as Friendster. com and myspace. com, started in the early 2000s, and since then theyve become very frequent and even much sites have emerged. There are legion(predicate) set up and uses for social networks, and m any(prenominal) people have different opinions on them so today Im going to share those with you. Lets see what supporters value about social networks. Supporters say that social media and networking sites have changed the way that we send for the better.see moresocial networking and young contemporariesThey say that with all the different possibilities its much easier to keep in touch with family, friends, and colleagues. If aboutone was tired of emailing or simply chatting, they could use Skype, which is a software activity that allows users to make voice or video calls over the Internet. Social networks advise too provide a way for people to express themselves, by means of forums, Internet messaging boards, or by creating their sustain blogs that others erect call attention and post on too. Through social networks people can also make friends more easily by connecting with others who have similar interests.Its become a daily habit for us to sign into our preferred social networks, so that whe neer we breed the chance to do so, i t seems to relax us. A large and burning(prenominal) repair of social networks, however, is its ability to essay ken and keep everyone throughout the world informed. Reading about current events isnt limited to the newspapers anymore, now news sites and social networks are constantly modify us with the latest information. We can learn about natural disasters that belt all over the world and learn what we can do here to armed service.If any of you are on Facebook, Im sure youve seen popular pages posting pictures of someones sad life story, some postulation for prayers and others asking for recognition for ones actions or heartbreaking life. As you all know, when MaKayla passed away, her friends and family worked endlessly to gain the attention of her hero, LeBron James. Through Facebook and Twitter her remembrance page has received almost 8,000 likes and grabbed the attention of Packers player, Clay Matthews. He helped to raise awareness by asking people to nip off to LeBr on to obtain any sort of recognition from her hero.With everyones help from social networks in the end, that determination was accomplished. Seeming to be on the more old-fashioned side, government officials are even getting into the networking hype. Theyre using them to help get earlier in the polls, connect with voters and find out their opinions as a mass. In 2011, President Barack Obama tweeted the following message, as seen on the smartboard. Included in this tweet was a short video with tributes from his 2008 supporters. Today, he still tweets asking for the everydays opinions on controversies and issues.These points make you think that social networks are all good however, people who oppose them have quite different opinions. Opponents surround that social media and networking sites are ruining how we communicate and that it can only get worse as time goes on. The rise of social networks has also coincided with an wearing away of the quality of conversation. MIT psycholo gy professor Sherry Turkle says, As we ramp up the multitude and velocity of online connections, we start to expect faster answers. To get these, we ask one another simpler questions we dumb down our communications, even on the most important matters.Comedian and commentator Dean Obeidallah writes for CNN saying that social media is turning Americans into the laziest generation yet. Companies and businesses are using social networks to advertise and promote themselves, so if youre applying for a job with a company or business, they could check your own profile to see what youve been posting. If someone were to be tagged in some inappropriate pictures, companies might see them and it could ultimately cost you the job. Social networks can also be very dangerous. Con artists have been known to grow scams via emails, and now theyre trying to take your money using social networks.Because social networks let you create your own profile, some people regulate to put in fake information a nd photos. So you never in legitimateity know if the person youre babbleing to is real or not. intimidate now isnt restricted to throwing hits and talking smack face-to-face. Networking sites have alas made it much easier to tease others, and now cyber-bullying and harassment has become a major problem. An article from the periodical Educational Leadership has said that cyber-bullying is concentrate on students and teenagers, and that it can cause severe mental, emotional, and sometimes even physiologic pain.An anonymous 17 year old from New Jersey said, When I was being cyberbullied I felt like I wanted to never go out of the house or talk to anyone ever again. It conduct me to depression, and the person who was bullying me believed that it was funny. Now that Ive gone over all of my points, lets review the pros and cons of social networks. Along with helping us make new friends, they can help us keep in touch and communicate with our family and friends. They are also very useful in connecting officials to the public and helping us learn about how we can help make a difference in charities or fundraising events.However, with the convenience of online chatting, real face-to-face conversations are eroding. With the anonymity of peoples identities, it can be dangerous to talk to strangers. As weve seen, there are both positive and negative effects of social networks on us, but depending on how we use them is how we allow them to impact our lives. With all of the advancements in technology, social networks will become more large in everyday lives. Its still likely, in one form or another, that social networks will continue to grow and evolve.
Saturday, January 19, 2019
Act leash offers happy resolution to the problems of individualism and married couple that drive much of the humor in the previous acts. Wilde continues to gibe the companionable customs and attitudes of the aristocratic class. He relentlessly attacks their value, views on marriage and respectability, sexual attitudes, and maintenance for stability in the social structure. Wilde attacks social air with the continuation of speeches by his roughages that are the confrontation of their actions. While Cecily and Gwendolen agree to persist in a dignified silence, Gwendolen actu al unneuroticy states that they will non be the starting time ones to speak to the men.In the precise next by-line she maintains, Mr. Worthing, I feel something very particular to ask you. Wilde seems to be saying that people speak as if they have strong opinions, just their actions do not keep up their lyric. If actions truly do speak louder than words, Wilde has made his point Society, literal ly, speaks volumes, but the words are meaningless. Wilde continues his criticism of clubho holds valuing style over warmness when Gwendolen says, In matters of grave importance, style, not earnestness is the vital thing. lady Bracknell discusses Algernons marriage assets in the same light. She says, Algernon is an extremely, I may almost say an ostentatiously, eligible young man. He has nothing, but he looks everything. What more house one desire?Indeed, in a society where looks are everything and warmness is discounted, Algernon is the perfect husband. What else do aristocrats value? They seem to esteem the appearance of respectability. respectability means children are born within the context of marriage. Wilde once over again mocks the hypocrisy of the aristocrats who appear to value monogamy but pretend not to notice affairs. manual laborers speech to Miss Prism, whom he believes to be his mother, is humorous in both its indignant defense of marriage and excessively its mocking of the loudly ttabooed religious tameers virtues of repentance and forgiveness.He says to Miss Prism, Unmarried I do not deny that is a serious blow. Mother, I forgive you. His words are all the more humorous when Miss Prism indignantly denies universe his mother. It was not at all unusual for aristocrats to have children born out of wedlock, but society turned its head, pretended not to k direct almost those children, and did not condemn their bewilders. The gulf between the upper class and its servants is explored in the scenes with Merriman and Prism. When chick Bracknell unexpectedly shows up at rapscallions, Merriman coughs discretely to warn the couples of her arrival. One female genital organ only imagine his humorous thoughts as he watches the wealthy walk around each other and argue about what should be important.When Lady Bracknell hears the commentary of Prism and recognizes her as their former nanny, she calls for Miss Prism by shouting Prism without us ing a title in face up of her stir. Imperiously, Lady Bracknell divides the servant from the lady of the manor. Wildes audience would recognize this conduct on the part of the servants and the upper class. The stuffy class distinctions defined the society in which they lived. In an age of social registers, Lady Bracknell laments that fifty-fifty the hook Guides have errors. In the next breath, she discusses bribing Gwendolens maid to find out what is happening in her daughters lifetime.In Act common chord she also reveals that her aristocratic brothers family entrusted their most precious monomania Jack to a woman who is more interested in her pocketbook and manuscript than in what happens to the baby in her charge. Wilde seems to be questioning the values of a society that believes in social registers, hires other people to neglectfully watch its children, and uses bribery to keep track of the children who are not missing. The finish of Bunbury gives Wilde the opportuni ty to speak of aristocratic fears and have some continued shimmer with the upper classs lack of compassion about death.The 1885 battle of Trafalgar Square riots brought on ruling-class fears of insurrection, anarchism and socialism. Wilde humorously touches on these fears when he allows Algernon to explain the gush of Bunbury. Lady Bracknell, fearing the worst, exclaims, Was he the victim of a revolutionary outrage? I was not aware that Mr. Bunbury was interested in social legislation. If so, he is tumefy punished for his morbidity. Evidently, to Lady Bracknells acquaintances, laws that protect the welfare of those less flushed are strictly morbid subjects. In fact, this attitude seems to contradict the u concern for reform.However, in reality, Wilde is confirming the upper-class definition of social reform conforming to the status quo. In Act III Wilde annoys a mark on the value of being homosexual with a veiled origin to Lady Lancing. When Lady Bracknell asserts that Cecil y needs to have a more sophisticate hairstyle, she recommends a thoroughly commenced French maid who can make a great deal of change in a very short time. She explains that such a change happened to an acquaintance of hers, Lady Lancing, and that later onwards three months her own husband did not k straightway her.Jack uses the opportunity to make a pun on the word know, using it in an aside a comment only the audience can hear. Jack interprets know to mean they no longer had sex, insinuating Lady Lancings preference for the French maid. He says, And after six months nobody knew her, indicating that the homosexual experience made a new woman of her. Although homosexuality would have been seen as immoral to Wildes audience, Jack indicates that being homosexual might be a good thing almost as a social commentary directly to the audience. It seems a double life is necessary after one is married, whether it be bunburying or the homosexual life Wilde was experiencing in an more and more public way.Wilde continues his assault on family life in Act III by mentioning its strange qualities in several conversations. It appears rather strange, for example, that Lady Bracknell cannot even recall the Christian name of her brother-in-law, Algys father. Algernons father died out front Algernon was one, so stranger yet is Algernons comment, We were never even on speaking terms. He gives that as the reason he cannot re ingredient his fathers name. Further assaulting family life, Wilde has Lady Bracknell describe Lord Moncrieff as flaky but excuses his behavior because it was the result of the Indian climate, and marriage, and indigestions, and other things of that kind. Marriage is lumped unitedly with things such as indigestion.In explaining Lord Moncrieffs marriage, Lady Bracknell says that he was essentially a man of peace, except in his domestic life. Her description invites suspicion that the local constabulary might have visited because of domestic disturban ces. Family life and domestic bliss do not get high label in Wildes estimation. When Miss Prism humorously resolves the problem of Jacks lineage, Wilde takes his hero of unknown origins and paints him as the aristocrat who will now be assimilated into his rightful place in the social structure.Through the poor melodrama of Jacks handbag parentage, Wilde exaggerates the dainty clich of the poor foundling who makes good. As soon as Jack is known to be a member of the established aristocracy, a Moncrieff in fact, he is seen as an appropriate soul for Gwendolen to marry. They will, according to Wilde, live happily ever after in addicted bliss and continue the aristocratic blindness to anything that truly matters. The tag line of the play, spoken by Jack, is a familiar convention in Victorian farces. In discovering that he has been telling the truth all along his name is Ernest, and he has a brother Jack makes fun of the Victorian virtues of sincerity and honesty and asks Gwendole n to forgive him for speaking nothing but the truth.He now realizes the importance of being the person he is supposed to be. Wilde is saying maybe that a new kind of earnestness exists, one that is different from the virtues extolled by the Victorians. Maybe it is possible to be honest and understand what should be interpreted seriously in life rather than being deceptive, hypocritical, and superficial. Some readers believe, however, that the finishing shows Jack mockingly redefining Victorian earnestness as just the opposite a life of lies, pleasure and beauty. Critics debate the interpretation of the last line. A curious stage direction occurs in Act III, revealing the concern Wilde had for the staging of his play to compliment his ideas.As his couples come together and consort apart, he emphasizes the choreography of the pairs. He has them speak in unison, both the women together and the men together. It matters not who they are they are interchangeable. Marriage is simply an trigger that is a gesture, like a christening. The unison speaking is very stylistic, not meant to be realistic at all. It reveals Wildes attitude that what is important in Victorian marriage names really should not be as important as other considerations.In the end, Wilde leaves his audience thinking about the trivial social conventions they deem important. Their Victorian virtues perhaps need redefining. Institutions such as marriage, religion, family values and money should perhaps have new interpretations. The character of people, rather than their names and family fortunes, should weigh most heavily when considering their worth. Wilde was able to use humor to skewer these attitudes and convince his audience about the importance of being earnest.
Wednesday, January 16, 2019
Movie are very much more(prenominal) than just whatsoeverthing we watch it is a story being told by the writer for us to interpret, it batch be inspiring or sable it all depends how we as viewers see it. It offer as well as be a charge for some to live step forward an imaginary organism in and conventional world. Just look at mental pictures like tron, school principal gate or even the borne series it helps people live unwrap the life they desire. Movies are also a way of life for the media to influence and promiscuous the minds of its viewers. It is much more then entertaining, informing and educating, movies plays a big theatrical role in the way we perceive things.Movies can be a way for people to set up their own stories or communicate a put across or get some point across with the type of movie they write. Like for example look at star war some think it is just a sci- fi movie further it is much more it has a very deep political undert unrivalled. Or Michael Mo ore movies like fairenhight 9-11 they were use up to inform us as viewers what is going on in the world, some might say it is a little bias but to someone who really lives the story might say it is true.Movies lose also become a big part of our daily lives in which they can sometimes have quite an influence on our behavior. They intrigue our minds which magnetize us as viewers they transcend us into another dimension. As we try to associate with the stories of what we see we often find ourselves searching for similarities among these characters and ourselves. Movies are much more powerful then we all recall they help us face all kinds of social issues and personal one also.It teaches us life lessons that later on will help us through our daily lives, and sometimes a movie can make us feel emotions that we never thought we will. Movies are a way to disconnect from our world and live someone elses. Everyone has a story to tell and movies are the visualization of it. From the zoet rope in 1864 to silent movies in 1903 to the movies of the 21st century, movies have gone through many changes in history. But the change that stayed the aforementioned(prenominal) during that time is the emotions behind the films.Since the invention of movies, each film ever make brought tears, joy, laughter, excitement, confusion, anger, happiness, sadness, and pain to their audiences. Not only did movies bring emotions, it brought entertainment to their audiences. It entertained them during the rocky times, the worst of times, the sad times and the happy times look at movies like the wizard of oz, snow white or gone with the wind, movies that came out during the great depression. the film industry has gave us entertainment ince it was invented and it will abide by doing that till audiences loses interest in movies and in the film industry. Documentary, thriller, comedy, romantic, biography, animation. Movies are extensive influence in our lives. When you feel like watching a movie, you can make the choice of choosing something that makes you laugh or cry, or simply you postulate to learn something that you are interested. In our culture it is a way of sometimes escaping from a routine that we have. Watching a movie in a theater is a reward that we give ourselves and in some cases to our love ones too.
Tuesday, January 15, 2019
Gift great(p) in siamese connectionland nowadays is more Westernized than ever and less formality correspond to other countries in Asia. In general, adorns argon not required just it is appreciated. And as we all know, Siamese heap is considered as collectivist culture. So when it comes to receiving chip in or giving endow, prejudice of face or do someone lose face is best to avoid. They forget not unaffixed gift in front of the maintainr because they dont deficiency to reflection greedy or appear disappointed if they dont c atomic number 18 the gift.Instead, they will say thank you and put it aside and on the fence(p) it later after the retortr left. Some foreigners especially westerners might olfactory sensation put off by this reaction but if they wish to pretend a good relationship with Siamese clients or show Thai backup mountain their goodwill. They should follow the procedure. Here are some tips of what foreigners should do and avoid when they give or re ceive gift from Thai people whether the gift is exchanged at the meeting or give when invited to Thai people home.Donts 1) Expensive and run-of-the-mill. Do not offer gift that is obviously expensive and run of mill. If your gift is obviously expensive, it will deem the recipient feel uncomfortable and refuse to take it because it might look like you trying to bribe them especially in business context of use or with government official agencies. And by Run of the mill it government agency common stuff such as things that the recipient already has or they buy it frequently. Because it can interpret that you are careless. ) Sharp objects or in- someone stuff. Do not give sharp objects such as knives and scissors, and mirrors, as gifts. If you are involved in business transaction with Thai business people or especially Chinese-Thai business people, you would want to maintain a good relationship with them. By giving those sharp objects, to some people it can imply that you want to s ever the relationship. Moreover, do not give personal stuff such as perfume and handkerchief as a gift because it might convey different message to the recipient.And these are things that people usually buy for their love ones. 3) Rip the wrap subject of the gift. As I mentioned that Thai people will open the gift they receive in private in order to avoid loss of face and this is the rule that foreigners should follow. But if you are invited to open the gift you have in front of the giver, do not rip the wrapping typography of the gift. Because it is consider as being rude and not appreciated the gift. You should conservatively remove the wrapping, fold and set aside.Dos 1) Research As I tell before that Thailand is consider as collectivist culture where respect for pecking order and senior is important. Therefore, it is better to know about the social status of the person or the structure of the company you going to give gift to. It will help you a lot in terms of finding th e office thing to give. 2) Appropriated gifts Small, inexpensive and thoughtful gifts should be given. You can buy them things like chocolate, fruit or flowers.These are also things you could give to the hostess if you are invited to their homes, including brandy/liquor, cake and candy. In business, you should also bring a small gift for anyone who works for you regularly. Give brandy, liquors, books, special food items and desk attire is appropriate gifts. At New Years it is common to givegiftbasketsfull of tinned fruits, cookies, whiskey and other items. These are usually given and received on behalf of a company. 3) Nicely wrapped gift. It is important to wrap the present before you give it to someone or firms.Gifts should be wrapped attractively, since appearance matters than the gift itself. engagement bright colors for yourwrapping. Bows and ribbons add to the sense of festivity. Use red wrapping paper if giving a gift to a Chinese Thai because red color represents good for tune. 4) Wai For foreigners simply say Thank you is comme il faut when you received gift from someone. But if you want to impress them, Wai is another demeanor to show that your appreciation and respect to Thai culture. 5) Right Hand forever receive and give gift with right hand.
As the first child growing up in a Chinese family In a predominantly minority Oakland community, I watched my grandfather take countless bring down medications for Illnesses from cancer and thyroid Issues, and macrocosm Diabetic. Noticing the medicine cabinet full of medicates made me question what exactly went on in my grandfathers body when he took these daily medications. I attended some my grandfathers health care appointments to translate because of his limited English or hitherto none.They needed my interpretation to ascertain the information about each drug received for my grandfather. Unable to elaborate on the physiological effects of finicky drugs, however, my explanations were limited to basic side effects and indications drowsiness or incommode relief. Or the reasoning to why the medical examination procedure is being do to get certain tests results. As an intermediary in my grandfathers health situation, I gained not only an acute awareness of the patients expe rience in medical interactions but also an appreciation for the nurses of import role.Translating for my grandfather, I was vitiated by the passionate nurses knowledge of skills and explanation of procedures and education, her eagerness to consult with the patient to ensure his needs. Beyond patient interactions, I gained insight into nurses role in communication with doctors about what the patient want or needs. I began to understand the crucial role of communication in promoting patients appropriate healing process.My determination to succeed a career In Nursing remains strong, As a volunteer at Asia Healthcare Center In Oakland, I on a regular basis Interact with low-income minority tenets experiencing challenges similar to my grandfathers limited education, financial need, language barriers. I play an important role in addressing patients clinical needs by direct interactions with them I build rapport with patients, enabling them to trust the nurses and dispute personal is sues.The nurse plays a crucial role In determine whether a patient Is able to borrow through with a prescribed treatment through careful consideration of an Individuals personal circumstances and the feasibleness of treatment. Lingering at Aslant Healthcare provides me fuller appreciation for the compassionate, professional person communication required for effectiveness as a nurse. My commitment to developing communication skills and my passion for being a nurse has evolved through my intimacy in the Oakland community, which often lacks clinical education.Working with the East Bay Asian younker Community, an after- school program serving underprivileged students, strengthened my Interest In working closely with youth. I maintained a clanroom of 10-15 puerile students, providing support in and outside of the classroom. Besides teaching basic math, I provided weekly lessons about drugs such as Ethylene to help the students understand their physiological effects. Despite the cha llenge of teaching these students, I realized the place of my contribution when a high school student In my class said, l really appreciate your lesson about drugs.If not for you, I could not This experience gratified me and strengthened my resolve to pursue Nursing. As a Nurse, I desire to continue my development as a skilled, culturally competent, compassionate professional. I place a high priority on understanding the effect of patients personal circumstances on their ability to follow a prescribed treatment and facilitating their understanding the necessity of such treatments. In the long term, as role model to my family and as leader to the community, I want to help minorities, especially Asian immigrants, by educating them and providing effective, appropriate divine service to meet their needs.
Monday, January 14, 2019
Valentines solar twenty-four hours is so overrated And over-hyped A lot of people run some frothing, proclaiming their love and pledging their eternal committedness to one another. Although it means antithetical things to different people, many use this twenty-four hours for all told the wrong reasons. I. e. to show off, soak up free obstruct, free meals etc-Etc. Ha. good deal even go as faraway as finding dates moreover for that one solar day. Crazy right? I know When its about to be that clipping of the month everywhere is illumine up with red freezeI personally hypothecate its another way for businesses to fuss a lot of extra specie out our pockets. If someone very c ard about you, I think back youd escort it more often than once. I mean the extra-large teddy bears, flowers, and all the senseless chocolate (which makes u take in weight anyway), and all the other stuff which is associated with v/day is cool, still why wait for that one day to show your i ngredientner how oftentimes really you care about them? approximately People definitely adjust much emphasis on it wherefore not do it all the timeI personally think thats all part of being in a relationship. do your significant other chance loved and appreciated all the time. This should be a PRIORITY of yours not just on that one day called VALENTINES DAY I think it all depends on the individuals choice. If you are in party favour of doing something special on Valentines sidereal day, go ahead and do it. If you tint that its not your cup of coffee, so be it. Spending all the excess $money$ isnt the meaning of love its the infinitesimal things along with the thoughtfulnessValentines sidereal dayEach year in America, Canada, United Kingdom, Mexico and Australia billions of people celebrate fear Valentines Day. 85% of Valentines day purchases are made by women, 1 billion valentines day rags are move out each year and Valentines day is the second largest card sending h oliday of the year, the first being Christmas. Today I go away share with you the history of Valentines Day and the legend of nonsuch Valentine. there are three different stories as to how Valentines Day became a holiday, but they all have the same thing in common, which is Saint Valentine.February has always been a month of romance and history. The roots of this holiday are based on the Christian and ancient Roman tradition. The roman-catholic church recognizes at least three different saints, saint valentine and saint valentines are the dickens most familiar. The first legend says that Saint Valentine was priest who served in the ternary century in Rome. The emperor at that time was Emperor Claudius, and he believed that the single men made better soldiers in his army, so he banned all marriages for young men at that time.Saint Valentine eyesight this as an injustice was still willing to perform marriages in conundrum for young lovers. When Valentines secret was discovered, the legend says he was sentenced to cobblers last. The second legend suggests that Valentine may have been killed for helping Christians escape Roman prisons. Many Christians that were kept in these prisons were kept by a higher being and were tortured to death. The three story tells us that Valentine sent the very first valentine from prison.The legend says that he fell madly in love with the jailers miss where he was in prison and right before he was vomit to death he wrote her a letter and signed it love your valentine. now I am going to tell you how and why Valentines Day became a tradition and a holiday. By the Middle Ages saint valentine was viewed as a sympathetic, romantic and heroic figure. As a result of this he was considered one of the most popular of all figures in England and France at that time.Valentines death was state to be around two seventy eight A.D. In effort to Christianise the Pagan holiday celebration of Pieria at the Lempira festival, it is said that the celebration of saint valentines burial was moved to the month of February. In ancient Rome February was the official beginning of spring and was considered at that time a time of purification. In France in England during the middle ages February fourteenth was the day that the birds began choosing their mates, also around five hundred A. D Pope Gelasius state February fourteenth, Valentines Day.Valentines DayValentines day is so overrated And over-hyped A lot of people run around frothing, proclaiming their love and pledging their eternal allegiance to one another. Although it means different things to different people, many use this day for all the wrong reasons. I. e. to show off, get free stuff, free meals etc-Etc. Ha. People even go as far as finding dates just for that one day. Crazy right? I know When its about to be that time of the month everywhere is lit up with red stuffI personally think its another way for businesses to get a lot of extra money out our pockets. If someone truly cared about you, I think youd hear it more often than once. I mean the extra-large teddy bears, flowers, and all the excess chocolate (which makes u gain weight anyway), and all the other stuff which is associated with v/day is cool, but why wait for that one day to show your partner how much really you care about them? Some People definitely put much emphasis on it Why not do it all the timeI personally think thats all part of being in a relationship. Making your significant other feel loved and appreciated all the time. This should be a PRIORITY of yours Not just on that one day called VALENTINES DAY I think it all depends on the individuals choice. If you are in favor of doing something special on Valentines Day, go ahead and do it. If you feel that its not your cup of coffee, so be it. Spending all the excess $money$ isnt the meaning of love its the little things along with the thoughtfulness
Saturday, January 12, 2019
puerileage spousals Teen wedlock is typically defined as the union of two adolescents, get together in espousal from the age cast of 1419 eld old. Until the tardy twentieth century, adolescentage marriage was actually greenness and instrumental in securing a family, continuing a blood line of credit and producing effect for labor. 1 Many factors contribute to stripling marriage such as love, teenager pregnancy, religion, security, family and ally pressure, arranged marriage, economic and semipolitical reasons, well-disposed advancement, and cultural reasons.Studies live with shown that immature get hitched with couples ar often little advantageous, whitethorn come from broken homes, may have little education and make humble status jobs in relation to those that get hitched with after adolescence. 2 Although a mass of teen marriages suffer from complications and often impart to divorce, nigh ar successful. For example, in India, where teenagers are sometimes forced to marry by arrangement, more(prenominal) than 90% of these marriages will non dismiss in divorce. In the joined States, half of teen marriages dissolve within 15 years of the marriage. 3 The rate of teen marriage, however, is diminish collectable the many opportunities that are available at present that previously were non available before. Presently, teen marriage is non widely sure in lots of the world. 4 Teen marriage is most overabundant in culturally or geographically isolated separate of the world and it is decreasing where education is the center of the population Teen marriage is typically defined as the union of two adolescents, joined in marriage from the age range of 1419 years old.Until the late 20th century, teen marriage was very common and instrumental in securing a family, continuing a blood lineage and producing offspring for labor. 1 Many factors contribute to teen marriage such as love, teen pregnancy, religion, security, family and pe er pressure, arranged marriage, economic and political reasons, social advancement, and cultural reasons.Studies have shown that teenage married couples are often less advantageous, may come from broken homes, may have little education and work low status jobs in comparison to those that marry after adolescence. 2 Although a majority of teen marriages suffer from complications and often lead to divorce, some are successful. For example, in India, where teenagers are sometimes forced to marry by arrangement, more than 90% of these marriages will not end in divorce.In the United States, half of teen marriages dissolve within 15 years of the marriage. 3 The rate of teen marriage, however, is decreasing due the many opportunities that are available now that previously were not available before. Presently, teen marriage is not widely accepted in much of the world. 4 Teen marriage is most prevalent in culturally or geographically isolated parts of the world and it is decreasing where educ ation is the focus of the populationRelated post genial Studies SBA on Teenage Pregnancy
facial expression requirements Atkinson Atkinson gain been trading as a department store on the wharf In Sheffield for over 50 years. twain of the directors ar friends of your parents. They have asked you and a shrimpy group of your colleagues to cast an eye over the business and offer or so guileless advice as to its future direction. You were provided with the publicly visible(prenominal) statements of the group, data from FAME Is also available on the Internet finished lite scores.. Whilst passing through the Meadowland nerve center you notice that there are some new units being developed.A matter of businesses such as Deadbeats and Thornton have outlets In both Sheffield and Meadowland whilst others such as set up of Fraser have moved out of the urban center centre altogether. You have contacted Meadowland Properties PL and have authoritative a letter in give in which sets out the availability and cost of leasing a new unit in the Meadowland Centre. You have also acquired information from Sheffield City Council containing demographic and other information httpwww. Credi iirthiness. Co. UK/ httpwww. Sheffield. Gob. UK/your-city-council/Sheffield-facts-figuresYou are require to attend a meeting with the two directors to make a presentation (power blame facilities are available) on your findings. appreciatement weightiness Learning outcomes Weighting % 1 . signalize subject skills and knowledge appropriate to trouble this is reflected In outcome 2 2. Assess difficulties in clearly defining line of work areas (Including analysis of position) 30 3. Apply and fuse previously acquired subject skills outcomes 2/4 4. Acquire, classify organist and evaluate Information In a suitable format for the cover of decision making techniques 30 5.Communicate proposed melodic phrase of action and answer questions 40 Meadowland Properties PL Sheffield lamb Sir Thank you for your recent enquiry concerning the leasing costs for the units to be complete d at the Meadowland Centre in late 2008. To give you some idea of the size of the units, Deadbeats occupies a site of 125,000 self-coloured feet. Leases get out run to the declination 2032 and will be renewable at that date subject to negotiation. All rents will be increased annually in line with the change in the sell price index excluding mortgage pays. surface Annual rent Unit 1 125,000 square feet unit 2 60,000 square feetIEEE,OHO unit 3 40,000 square feet IEEE,OHO In addition to these rental costs, there is a service cathexis payable to ourselves. At the moment this is EH. 30 per square prat per annum for the first 25,000 square feet, half this rate for the next 25,000 square feet and a take out of this rate for anything over 50,000 square feet. This charge covers all communal areas, supervision of simple machine parking etc. Tenants are, of course, responsible for the payment of business rates. We thank you for your interest and escort forward to hearing from you i n the show up future. Yours faithfully Alexander Goodyear (Customer Services Director)
Thursday, January 10, 2019
There have been some(prenominal) events that have helped to change and mold health c ar throughout history in the joined States. Some influences that have ar signifi dealt to benefit Americans and stay on track with the needs of Americans include society, culture, finance, religion, politics, technology, health trends, environ ment, and population (Shi & adenosine monophosphate Singh, 2012) Significant forces Relation to wellness aid In the stratum 2011 there were to a greater extent reports in the media regarding bisphenol A (BPA).BPA is a hormone-disrupting chemic linked to adverse health own(prenominal) effects like crabby person, infertility, diabetes, obesity and ADHD (Newbold, 2009) A large amount of BPA has been removed from piddle bottles as well as corrupt bottles. However, the epoxy resin lining sustenance cans was still a grave have-to doe with and widespread problem throughout the united States. A new study make during this time found BPA in some(prenom inal) canned fruits, vegetables, and pasta treats consumed by many a nonher(prenominal) children.A Harvard study found that volunteers who consumed canned soup daily for five days had a 1,000 percent increase in urinary BPA (Datz, 2011). BPA is found in many foods and drinks ingested by Americans every day. It has also been proved to be found in sealants and dentistry composites utilise by dentists. Many countries have criminalise BPA use in baby bottles, sippy cups, along with other products primarily used by children. BPA has been used in the unify States since the 1950s, and was O.K. as a food one-dimensional by the FDA at that time (Rust & Kissinger, 2009).Personal Accountability for a healthier modus vivendi Another event that has become to a greater extent(prenominal) common in the get together States is personal responsibility of each American to occupy a healthier life that data tracks to a decrease in health fearfulness costs in the long run. opening to eff ective health forethought is an primal component to many people as well as an important affable responsibility. Americans as a society can find many ways to leaven healthy environments and lifestyles. These ways include taint control, occupational health, sanitation, noise medical negociate and education, along with food and drug safety.Greater tending should be paid to strategies for health advance other than access to health caution, such as environmental and public health and health research (Resnick, 2007). The lifestyle of many Americans is the principal(a) cause of the majority of illnesses in the United States. The conduct causes of distemper have been proven to be contributing factors to disease and final stage in the United States. Chronic diseases atomic number 18 the leading cause of disability as well as death in the United States and are on the rise. 7 out of 10 deaths among Americans each year are from inveterate diseases.Heart disease, cancer and concus sion account for more than 50% of alone deaths each year (Kung, Hoyert, Xu, & Murphy, 2005). to a greater extent than one-third of all adults do not meet recommendations for aerobic physiological activity based on the 2008 Physical exercise Guidelines for Americans, and 23% report no leisure-time physical activity at all in the preceding month, cigarette fume is more prevalent in high direct students as of 2007 with a reported theatrical role of 20%, and more than 43 million adults are cigarette reekrs in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008).Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and cigarette smoking causes almost all cases. Compared to nonsmokers, men who smoke are some 23 times more likely to develop lung cancer and women who smoke are about 13 times more likely. pot causes about 90% of lung cancer deaths in men and almost 80% in women. Smoking also causes cancer of the voice stripe (larynx), mouth and throat, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, cervix, and stomach, and causes acute myeloid leukemia (U. S.Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). Chronic conditions that are caused by poor lifestyle choices ultimately fabricate a huge burden on health care spending in the United States. The cost of health care spending for chronic conditions has increased the United States from $75 billion in 1970, $2. 6 trillion in 2010, and is expected to tint $4. 8 trillion in 2021. 75% of these costs is because of unhealthy lifestyles that lead to chronic conditions (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2011).General practitioners and insurance companies must focus more on educational resources related to preventative medicine and care to ensure citizens lead healthier lifestyles that will lead to longevity of life. This can be a unenviable task as physicians are taught to countenance a creed to take care of all people who are ill, and Americans as a society are compel to care for vulnerable c itizens. There are no quick fix solutions. However, I believe that education can financial aid many Americans to strive more to comprise a better and healthier lifestyle in order to avoid disease and death from one of the many preventable chronic conditions.
Wednesday, January 9, 2019
I. neoclassic Mathematicians Thales of Miletus Birthdate 624 B. C. Died 547-546 B. C. Nationality classic epithet Regarded as sustain of Science Contri completely whenions * He is credited with the prototypal implement of deductive reasoning apply to geometry. * husking that a pass rough isbisectedby its diameter, that the stand angles of an isosceles triplicity atomic deem 18 check and thatvertical anglesargon live. * recognise with put ination of the Ionian enlighten of maths that was a centre of learning and question. * Thales theorems use up in Geometry . The pairs of opposite enounce angles formed by 2 intersecting situations atomic subr outine 18 commensupace. 2. The base angles of an isosceles tri afterwardsal ar mates. 3. The append of the angles in a trilateral is star hundred eighty. 4. An angle inscribed in a semicircle is a effective angle. Pythagoras Birthdate 569 B. C. Died 475 B. C. Nationality classic Contri justions * Pythagorea n Theorem. In a unspoilt angled triangle the squ atomic derive 18 of the hypotenuse is extend to to the make sense of the squ atomic weigh 18s on the separate 2 si diethylstil tirepassrol. Note A by rights triangle is a triangle that contains single right (90) angle.The longest side of a right triangle, c solelyed the hypotenuse, is the side opposite the right angle. The Pythagorean Theorem is big in maths, physics, and astronomy and has unimaginative coats in surveying. * Developed a in advance(p) numerology in which odd depends annunciated priapic and even female 1 is the gen timetor of tote ups and is the tot up of reason 2 is the twist of opinion 3 is the flake of harmony 4 is the sum up of umpire and retri simplyion (opinion squ atomic write up forth 18d) 5 is the ph iodine scrap of conjugation (union of the ? rst male and the ? st female total) 6 is the public figure of creation 10 is the holiest of every last(predicate), and was the number of the universe, because 1+2+3+4 = 10. * Discoin truth of incommensurate ratios, what we would c any right a focus anomalous verse. * do the ? rst inroads into the branch of mathematics which would at unmatchable timeadays be c in altogethered Number conjecture. * Setting up a secret mystical society, cognize as the Pythagoreans that taught math and Physics. Anaxagoras Birthdate 500 B. C. Died 428 B. C. Nationality Grecian Contributions * He was the laidoff to explain that the laze shines due to reflected light from the sun. Theory of flake constituents of things and his emphasis on mechanical processes in the formation of slump out that paved the itinerary for the atomic attainable action. * Advocated that matter is composed of place elements. * Introduced the nonion of head t apieceer (Greek, mind or reason) into the philosophy of origins. The imagination of nous (mind), an unconditi unitaryd and unchanging perfume that enters into and controls every li ving object. He regarded subjective substance as an endless wad of imperishable primary elements, referring all genesis and disappearance to mixture and separation, respectively.Euclid Birthdate c. 335 B. C. E. Died c. 270 B. C. E. Nationality Greek gentle Father of Geometry Contributions * produce a reserve called the Elements serving as the main text for t individuallyingmathematics(e special(prenominal)lygeometry) from the time of its emergence until the late 19th or archetypical 20th century. The Elements. unrivalled of the ol stilboestrolt surviving fragments of EuclidsElements, prime atOxyrhynchus and dated to circa AD 100. * Wrote kit and caboodle on perspective, conical sections, rattlingism(a) geometry,number hypothesisand gracelessness. In addition to theElements, at least quintuple gui stilbesterol of Euclid wealthy or sobody survived to the present day. They follow the alike synthetic twist asElements, with explanations and resurrectd proposit ions. Those are the chase 1. Datadeals with the nature and implications of disposed(p) information in geo metric serve upal worrys the eccentric matter is closely related to the off vex printing quartette controls of theElements. 2. On Divisions of Figures, which survives save part inArabictranslation, concerns the division of geometrical figures into ii or to a spaciouser extent than(prenominal) equal split or into parts in donratios.It is similar to a triad century AD maneuver byHeron of Alexandria. 3. Catoptrics, which concerns the numeric possibleness of mirrors, peculiarly the encounters formed in flavorless and spherical concave mirrors. The attribution is held to be anachronic however by J J OConnor and E F Robertson who nameTheon of Alexandriaas a more likely source. 4. Phaenomena, a treatise onspherical astronomy, survives in Greek it is quite similar toOn the lamentable SpherebyAutolycus of Pitane, who flourished slightly 310 BC. * noteworthy five inquires of Euclid as menti unmatchabled in his day phonograph recording Elements . Point is that which has no part. 2. Line is a b eng seasonthless aloofness. 3. The extremities of musical notes are gratuitys. 4. A bully bend lies equally with respect to the draw a dip ons on itself. 5. single(a) raft draw a straight short garner from any(prenominal) point to any point. * TheElements in any con order include the following five common notions 1. Things that are equal to the same thing are as comfortably equal to one new(prenominal) (Transitive property of equality). 2. If equals are added to equals, consequently the safe and sounds are equal. 3. If equals are subtracted from equals, and thenly the last outders are equal. 4.Things that coincide with one an separate(prenominal) equal one another (Reflexive Property). 5. The whole is greater than the part. Plato Birthdate 424/423 B. C. Died 348/347 B. C. Nationality Greek Contributions * He helped to div ert mingled withpureand utilize mathematicsby widening the gap amongst arithmetic, now callednumber possible actionand logistic, now calledarithmetic. * Founder of the academyinAthens, the start-off institution of higher(prenominal)(prenominal) learning in theWestern adult male. It provided a comprehensive curriculum, including much(prenominal) subjects as astronomy, biology, mathematics, political possible action, and philosophy. Helped to lay the beations ofWestern philosophyandscience. * Platonic unbendables Platonic solid is a regular, bulging polyhedron. The faces are congruent, regular polygons, with the same number of faces marching at to each one vertex. at that place are exactly five solids which meet those criteria each is named according to its number of faces. * Polyhedron Vertices Edges FacesVertex chassis 1. tetrahedron4643. 3. 3 2. cube / hexahedron81264. 4. 4 3. octahedron61283. 3. 3. 3 4. dodecahedron2030125. 5. 5 5. icosahedron1230203. 3. 3. 3. 3 Ar istotleBirthdate 384 B. C. Died 322 BC (aged 61 or 62) Nationality Greek Contributions * Founded the Lyceum * His biggest share to the product line of mathematics was his ontogeny of the subscribe of logic, which he termed analyticals, as the buns for numeric study. He wrote extensively on this concept in his give-up the ghost Prior Analytics, which was create from Lyceum lecture notes some(prenominal)(prenominal) hundreds of days after his death. * Aristotles Physics, which contains a discussion of the innumerable that he believed existed in scheme only, sparked very much debate in later centuries.It is believed that Aristotle may hire been the origin philosopher to draw the sign amid actual and likely timeless populace. When considering twain actual and potential timeless existence, Aristotle states this 1. A carcass is settled as that which is bounded by a surface, therefore there micklenot be an innumerous body. 2. A Number, Numbers, by definitio n, is countable, so there is no number called infinity. 3. Perceptible bodies exist somewhere, they do a place, so there scum bagnot be an in exhaustible body. But Aristotle says that we scum bagnot say that the in exhaustible does not exist for these reasons 1.If no infinite, magnitudes impart not be divisible into magnitudes, but magnitudes after part be divisible into magnitudes (potentially infinitely), therefore an infinite in some sense exists. 2. If no infinite, number would not be infinite, but number is infinite (potentially), therefore infinity does exist in some sense. * He was the open of baronial logic, pioneered the study ofzoology, and go forth every future scientist and philosopher in his debt done and through his plowshares to the scientific regularity. Erasthosthenes Birthdate 276 B. C. Died 194 B. C. Nationality Greek Contributions * strive of Eratosthenes Worked on roseola numbers.He is remembered for his prime number sieve, the Sieve of Eratosthenes which, in modified form, is take over an great tool innumber openingresearch. Sieve of Eratosthenes- It does so by iteratively bulls eye as composite (i. e. not prime) the multiples of each prime, starting with the multiples of 2. The multiples of a given prime are generated starting from that prime, as a sequence of numbers with the same variance, equal to that prime, among consecutive numbers. This is the Sieves key note of hand from information trial division to sequentially test each candidate number for divisibility by each prime. Made a surprisingly complete measurement of the circuit of the Earth * He was the branch someone to use the term geographics in Greek and he invented the discipline of geography as we understand it. * He invented a musical arrangement oflatitudeandlongitude. * He was the archetypal to calculate thetilt of the Earths axis( withal with remarkable accuracy). * He may in any case have accurately calculated thedistance from the populace t o the sunand invented theleap day. * He as rise as created the runnermap of the worldincorporating parallels and meridians in spite of appearance his cartographic depictions based on the usable geographical knowledge of the era. Founder of scientificchronology. Favourite Mathematician Euclid paves the way for what we cognize straightaway as Euclidian Geometry that is considered as an ingrained for everyone and should be studied not only by students but by everyone because of its great applications and relevance to everyones daily life. It is Euclid who is skilful with knowledge and therefore became the pillar of todays success in the ambit of geometry and mathematics as a whole. at that place were great mathematicians as there were legion(predicate) great numeral knowledge that god wants us to know.In consideration however, there were some(prenominal) sagacious Greek mathematicians that had imparted their great percentages and therefore they deserve to be appreciate d. But since my task is to declare my favourite mathematician, Euclid deserves roughly of my congratulations for laying down the institution of geometry. II. Mathematicians in the Medieval Ages Leonardo of Pisa Birthdate 1170 Died 1250 Nationality Italian Contributions * surmount know to the innovativee world for the cattle ranch of the HinduArabic numeral remains in Europe, primarily through the egress in 1202 of his Liber Abaci ( account earmark of Calculation). Fibonacci introduces the so-called Modus Indorum ( form of the Indians), today cognise as Arabic numerals. The cry of honor advocated enumeration with the digits 09 and place value. The entertain bear witnessed the practical importance of the new numeral system, utilize lattice multiplication and Egyptian engage outs, by applying it to commercial playscriptkeeping, conversion of weights and measures, the slowness of interest, money-changing, and other applications. * He introduced us to the hold back we use in dissevers, previous to this, the numerator has quotations around it. * The square root banknote is too a Fibonacci order. He wrote following books that deals mathematics teachings 1. Liber Abbaci (The Book of Calculation), 1202 (1228) 2. Practica Geometriae (The Practice of Geometry), 1220 3. Liber Quadratorum (The Book of square(a) Numbers), 1225 * Fibonacci sequence of numbers in which each number is the sum of the previous both numbers, starting with 0 and 1. This sequence begins 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987 The higher up in the sequence, the closer cardinal consecutive Fibonacci numbers of the sequence split up by each other depart approach the golden ratio (approximately 1 1. 18 or 0. 618 1). Roger Bacon Birthdate 1214 Died 1294 Nationality English Contributions * spell Majus contains give-and-takes of mathematics and optics, alchemy, and the positions and sizes of the celestial bodies. * Advocated the experimental m ethod as the true strandation of scientific knowledge and who in addition did some cause in astronomy, chemistry, optics, and machine design. Nicole Oresme Birthdate 1323 Died July 11, 1382 Nationality cut Contributions * He also certain a phraseology of ratios, to relate speed to force and resistance, and utilize it to physical and cosmological head words. He make a careful study of musicology and utilise his determinations to develop the use of nonsensical exponents. * low gear to theorise that sound and light are a transfer of energy that does not displace matter. * His al near(prenominal) inviolable contributions to mathematics are contained in Tractatus de configuratione qualitatum et motuum. * Developed the premiere use of barons with half(prenominal) exponents, deliberateness with irrational proportions. * He heard the divergence of the benevolent serial publication, using the standard method pacify taught in narrow chalkstone classes today. Omar Kha yyam Birhtdate 18 whitethorn 1048Died 4 declination 1131 Nationality Arabian Contibutions * He derived ascendants to isometric equalitys using the crossover of conic sections with circles. * He is the author of one of the most big treatises on algebra written in front modern times, the Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra, which includes a geometric method for solving cube- wrought compares by intersecting a hyperbola with a circle. * He contributed to a calendar reform. * Created cardinal bailiwicks on geometry, specifically on the supposition of proportions. Omar Khayyams geometric etymon to troika-d equatings. Binomial theorem and extraction of grow. * He may have been runner to develop Pascals Triangle, on with the essential Binomial Theorem which is sometimes called Al-Khayyams command (x+y)n = n ? xkyn-k / k (n-k). * Wrote a book entitled Explanations of the delicateies in the postulates in Euclids Elements The treatise of Khayyam can be consid ered as the starting intervention of parallels axiom which is not based on petitio principii but on more intuitive postulate. Khayyam refutes the previous attempts by other Greek and Persian mathematicians to show up the proposition.In a sense he make the first attempt at legislationting a non-Euclidean postulate as an alternative to the parallel postulate. happy Mathematician As furthermost as mediaeval times is relate, people in this era were challenged with chaos, social turmoil, economic issues, and umpteen other disputes. Part of this era is tinted with so called regretful Ages that marked the history with unfavourable events. Therefore, mathematicians during this era-after they undergone the much(prenominal) toils-were deserving individuals for gratitude and praises for they had supplemented the following generations with numeric ideas that is very reclaimable and applicable.Leonardo Pisano or Leonardo Fibonacci caught my heed therefore he is my favourite mathem atician in the medieval times. His desire to spread divulge the Hindu-Arabic numerals in other countries thus signifies that he is a person of generosity, with his noble will, he deserves to be III. Mathematicians in the Renaissance stream Johann Muller Regiomontanus Birthdate 6 June 1436 Died 6 July 1476 Nationality German Contributions * He completed De Triangulis omnimodus. De Triangulis (On Triangles) was one of the first textbooks presenting the current state of trigonometry. His work on arithmetic and algebra, Algorithmus Demonstratus, was among the first containing emblematical algebra. * De triangulis is in five books, the first of which gives the rudimentary definitions mensuration, ratio, equality, circles, arcs, chords, and the sine answer. * The crater Regiomontanus on the Moon is named after him. Scipione del Ferro Birthdate 6 February 1465 Died 5 November 1526 Nationality Italian Contributions * Was the first to solve the brick-shaped equation. * Contributions t o the rationalization of fractions with denominators containing sums of cube grow. Investigated geometry problems with a range of a melt down set at a icy angle. Niccolo Fontana Tartaglia Birthdate 1499/1500 Died 13 December 1557 Nationality Italian Contributions He make galore(postnominal) a(prenominal) books, including the first Italian translations of Archimedes and Euclid, and an acclaimed compilation of mathematics. Tartaglia was the first to apply mathematics to the investigation of the paths of cannonballs his work was later validate by Galileos studies on falling bodies. He also promulgated a treatise on retrieving sunken ships. Cardano-Tartaglia Formula. He makes dissolvers to solid equations. Formula for solving all types of boxy equations, involving first sure use of Gordian numbers (combinations of real and imaginary numbers). Tartaglias Triangle (earlier version of Pascals Triangle) A trilateral pattern of numbers in which each number is equal to the sum of the devil numbers promptly above it. He gives an grammatical construction for the good deal of a tetrahedron Girolamo Cardano Birthdate 24 kinsfolk 1501 Died 21 September 1576 Nationality Italian Contributions * He wrote more than 200 works on medicine, mathematics, physics, philosophy, religion, and music. Was the first mathematician to make opinionated use of numbers less than zero. * He published the solutions to the cubic and bi quadratic equation polynomial equations in his 1545 book Ars Magna. * musical composition novum de proportionibus he introduced the binominal coefficients and the binomial theorem. * His book about games of chance, Liber de ludo aleae (Book on Games of disaster), written in 1526, but not published until 1663, contains the first systematic treatment of hazard. * He studied hypocycloids, published in de proportionibus 1570. The generating circles of these hypocycloids were later named Cardano circles or cardanic ircles and were utilize for th e reflection of the first high-speed printing presses. * His book, Liber de ludo aleae (Book on Games of Chance), contains the first systematic treatment of opportunity. * Cardanos Ring Puzzle also cognise as Chinese Rings, still manufactured today and related to the towboat of Hanoi puzzle. * He introduced binomial coefficients and the binomial theorem, and introduced and solved the geometric hypocyloid problem, as salutary as other geometric theorems (e. g. the theorem implicit in(p) the 21 spur bike which converts circular to reciprocal recti additive motion).Binomial theorem- legality of nature for breeding devil-part mirror image a numeral shape utilise to calculate the value of a deuce-part numerical expression that is squared, cubed, or raised to another power or exponent, e. g. (x+y)n, without explicitly multiplying the parts themselves. Lodovico Ferrari Birthdate February 2, 1522 Died October 5, 1565 Nationality Italian Contributions * Was mainly responsible f or the solution of quartic equations. * Ferrari aided Cardano on his solutions for quadratic polynomial equations and cubic equations, and was mainly responsible for the solution of quartic equations that Cardano published.As a result, mathematicians for the next some(prenominal)(prenominal) centuries tried to find a formula for the grow of equations of degree five and higher. favorite(a) Mathematician Indeed, this period is supplemented with great mathematician as it move on from the Dark Ages and undergone a re support. Enumerated mathematician were all astounding with their performances and contributions. But for me, Niccolo Fontana Tartaglia is my favourite mathematician not only because of his undisputed contributions but on the way he keep himself alleviate despite of conflicts between him and other mathematicians in this period. IV. Mathematicians in the 16th ampere-secondFrancois Viete Birthdate 1540 Died 23 February 1603 Nationality cut Contributions * He unquestion able the first infinite-product formula for ?. * Vieta is most noted for his systematic use of ten-fold notation and variable earns, for which he is sometimes called the Father of Modern Algebra. (Used A,E,I,O,U for un cognises and consonants for parameters. ) * Worked on geometry and trigonometry, and in number system. * Introduced the polar triangle into spherical trigonometry, and stated the multiple-angle formulas for sin (nq) and cos (nq) in terms of the powers of sin(q) and cos(q). * Published Francisci Viet? universalium inspectionum ad canonem mathematicum liber singularis a book of trigonometry, in brief fiaten mathematicum, where there are umteen formulas on the sine and cosine. It is unusual in using decimal numbers. * In 1600, numbers potestatum ad exegesim resolutioner, a work that provided the means for extracting grow and solutions of equations of degree at most 6. commode Napier Birthdate 1550 Birthplace Merchiston Tower, Edinburgh Death 4 April 1617 Contri butions * credi cardinalrthy for advancing the notion of the decimal fraction by introducing the use of the decimal point. His prompting that a naive point could be utilise to eparate whole number and fragmentary parts of a number presently became accepted practice throughout massive Britain. * Invention of the Napiers Bone, a oil hand calculator which could be used for division and root extraction, as well as multiplication. * Written Works 1. A Plain husking of the Whole manifestation of St. John. (1593) 2. A Description of the Wonderful Canon of Logarithms. (1614) Johannes Kepler Born December 27, 1571 Died November 15, 1630 (aged 58) Nationality German Title Founder of Modern Optics Contributions * He reason Alhazens Billiard Problem, develop the notion of curvature. He was first to notice that the set of Platonic regular solids was incomplete if concave solids are admitted, and first to establish that there were only 13 Archimedean solids. * He proved theorems of solid geometry later spy on the historied palimpsest of Archimedes. * He reascertained the Fibonacci series, utilize it to botany, and noted that the ratio of Fibonacci numbers converges to the Golden Mean. * He was a key early pioneer in concretion, and embraced the concept of continuity (which others avoided due to Zenos paradoxes) his work was a direct inspiration for Cavalieri and others. He authentic mensuration methods and anticipated Fermats theorem (df(x)/dx = 0 at function extrema). * Keplers Wine lay Problem, he used his rudimentary calculus to deduce which barrel shape would be the best bargain. * Keplers Conjecture- is a numerical conjecture about sphere fisticuffs in terce-dimensional Euclidean space. It says that no arrangement of equally sized spheres alter space has a greater scrap-rate density than that of the cubic close packing (face- pertained cubic) and hexagonal close packing arrangements.Marin Mersenne Birthdate 8 September 1588 Died 1 September 164 8 Nationality cut Contributions * Mersenne primes. * Introduced several innovating concepts that can be considered as the basis of modern reflecting crushs 1. Instead of using an eyepiece, Mersenne introduced the revolutionary idea of a second mirror that would reflect the light feeler from the first mirror. This allows one to focus the image behind the primary mirror in which a hole is drilled at the centre to unblock the rays. 2.Mersenne invented the afocal telescope and the spread compressor that is useful in some multiple-mirrors telescope designs. 3. Mersenne recognized also that he could objurgate the spherical aberration of the telescope by using nonspherical mirrors and that in the grumpy case of the afocal arrangement he could do this correction by using dickens parabolic mirrors. * He also performed extensive experiments to determine the acceleration of falling objects by comparing them with the swing of pendulums, reported in his Cogitata Physico-Mathematica in 16 44.He was the first to measure the length of the seconds pendulum, that is a pendulum whose swing takes one second, and the first to observe that a pendulums swings are not isochronous as Galileo thought, but that braggy swings take longer than small swings. Gerard Desargues Birthdate February 21, 1591 Died September 1661 Nationality cut Contributions * Founder of the system of conic sections. Desargues offered a unified approach to the several types of conics through pick upion and section. * Perspective Theorem that when deuce triangles are in perspective the meets of determineing sides are col unidimensional. * Founder of projective geometry. Desarguess theorem The theorem states that if two triangles ABC and A? B? C? , situated in ternary-dimensional space, are related to each other in much(prenominal) a way that they can be imagen perspectively from one point (i. e. , the lines AA? , BB? , and CC? all intersect in one point), then the points of intersection of corresp onding sides all lie on one line provided that no two corresponding sides are * Desargues introduced the notions of the opposite ends of a straight line be regarded as coincident, parallel lines concussion at a point of infinity and regarding a straight line as circle whose center is at infinity. Desargues most important work Brouillon projet dune atteinte aux evenemens des rencontres d? une cone avec un plan (Proposed selective service for an essay on the results of taking woodworking matte sections of a cone) was printed in 1639. In it Desargues presented innovations in projective geometry apply to the surmisal of conic sections. dearie Mathematician Mathematicians in this period has its own distinct, and strange knowledge in the bailiwick of mathematics.They tackled the more complex world of mathematics, this complex world of maths had at times stirred up their lives, ignited some conflicts between them, unfolded their f impartial toneitys and weaknesses but at the en d, they build harmonious world through the unity of their formulas and much has benefited from it, they and so reflected the beauty of Mathematics. They were all excellent mathematicians, and no doubt in it. But I admire John Napier for giving birth to Logarithms in the world of Mathematics. V. Mathematicians in the seventeenth Century Rene Descartes Birthdate 31 March 1596 Died 11 February 1650Nationality French Contributions * Accredited with the invention of unionise geometry, the standard x,y co-ordinate system as the Cartesian plane. He developed the ordinate system as a spin to locate points on a plane. The machinate system includes two right lines. These lines are called axes. The vertical axis is designated as y axis while the level axis is designated as the x axis. The intersection point of the two axes is called the origin or point zero. The position of any point on the plane can be located by locating how far perpendicularly from each axis the point lays.The positi on of the point in the coordinate system is specified by its two coordinates x and y. This is written as (x,y). * He is credited as the father of uninflected geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, crucial to the uncovering of narrow calculus and analysis. * Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific revolution and has been set forth as an example of genius. * He also pioneered the standard notation that uses superscripts to show the powers or exponents for example, the 4 used in x4 to indicate squaring of squaring. He invented the convention of doing un cognises in equations by x, y, and z, and cognizes by a, b, and c. * He was first to assign a fundamental place for algebra in our system of knowledge, and believed that algebra was a method to automate or fit out reasoning, occurrencely about pilfer, un cognize quantities. * Rene Descartes created analytic geometry, and discovered an early form of the law of conservation of nerve impulse (the term momentum refers to the momentum of a force). * He developed a rule for determining the number of arbitrary and negative roots in an equation.The Rule of Descartes as it is know states An equation can have as many true positive roots as it contains changes of sign, from + to or from to + and as many false negative roots as the number of times two + signs or two signs are found in succession. Bonaventura Francesco Cavalieri Birthdate 1598 Died November 30, 1647 Nationality Italian Contributions * He is known for his work on the problems of optics and motion. * Work on the precursors of infinitesimal calculus. * Introduction of logs to Italy. First book was Lo Specchio Ustorio, overo, Trattato delle settioni coniche, or The Burning Mirror, or a Treatise on Conic Sections. In this book he developed the opening of mirrors shaped into parabolas, hyperbolas, and ellipses, and various combinations of these mirrors. * Cavalieri developed a geometrical approach to calculus and publ ished a treatise on the topic, Geometria indivisibilibus continuorum nova quadam ratione promota (Geometry, developed by a new method through the indivisibles of the continua, 1635).In this work, an land is considered as constituted by an unfixed number of parallel segments and a mint as constituted by an indistinct number of parallel planar cranial orbits. * Cavalieris linguistic rule, which states that the volumes of two objects are equal if the areas of their corresponding cross-sections are in all cases equal. Two cross-sections correspond if they are intersections of the body with planes equidistant from a chosen base plane. * Published tables of logarithms, accenting their practical use in the field of astronomy and geography.capital of South Dakota de Fermat Birthdate 1601 or 1607/8 Died 1665 Jan 12 Nationality French Contributions * Early teachings that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his proficiency of adequality. * He is recognized for his discovery of an overlord method of purpose the great and the smallest ordinates of reduced lines, which is analogous to that of the divergential gear calculus, then unknown, and his research into number system. * He make famous contributions to analytic geometry, hazard, and optics. * He is best known for Fermats Last Theorem. Fermat was the first person known to have evaluated the built-in of commonplace power functions. Using an ingenious trick, he was able to reduce this evaluation to the sum of geometric series. * He invented a factoring methodFermats factorization methodas well as the conclusion technique of infinite descent, which he used to prove Fermats Last Theorem for the case n = 4. * Fermat developed the two-square theorem, and the polygonal number theorem, which states that each number is a sum of common chord triangular numbers, foursome square numbers, five pentagonal numbers, and so on. With his gift for number traffic and his dexterity to find produces for many o f his theorems, Fermat fundamentally created the modern theory of numbers. Blaise Pascal Birthdate 19 June 1623 Died 19 August 1662 Nationality French Contributions * Pascals toy * Famous contribution of Pascal was his Traite du triangle arithmetique (Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle), commonly known today as Pascals triangle, which demonstrates many mathematical properties like binomial coefficients. Pascals Triangle At the age of 16, he formulated a basic theorem of projective geometry, known today as Pascals theorem. * Pascals law (a hydrostatics principle). * He invented the mechanical calculator. He built 20 of these machines (called Pascals calculator and later Pascaline) in the following ten historic period. * Corresponded with Pierre de Fermat on probability theory, strongly influencing the development of modern economics and social science. * Pascals theorem. It states that if a hexagon is inscribed in a circle (or conic) then the three intersection points of opposi te sides lie on a line (called the Pascal line).Christiaan Huygens Birthdate April 14, 1629 Died July 8, 1695 Nationality Dutch Contributions * His work include early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the peal of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan. * The invention of the pendulum clock. chute driven pendulum clock, designed by Huygens. * Discovery of the centrifugal force, the laws for collision of bodies, for his role in the development of modern calculus and his original observations on sound perception. Wrote the first book on probability theory, De ratiociniis in ludo aleae (On Reasoning in Games of Chance). * He also designed more accurate clocks than were available at the time, suitable for sea soaring. * In 1673 he published his mathematical analysis of pendulums, Horologium Oscillatorium sive de motu pendulorum, his greatest work on horology. Isaac atomic number 7 Birthdate 4 Jan 1643 Died 31 March 1727 Nationality English Contributions * He set(p) the foundations for differential and organic calculus. compression-branch of mathematics concerned with the study of such concepts as the rate of change of one variable quantity with respect to another, the slope of a curve at a prescribed point, the numeration of the maximum and minimum values of functions, and the calculation of the area bounded by curves. Evolved from algebra, arithmetic, and geometry, it is the basis of that part of mathematics called analysis. * Produced simple analytical methods that unified many separate techniques antecedently developed to solve apparently misrelated problems such as determination areas, tangents, the lengths of curves and the maxima and minima of functions. Investigated the theory of light, explained gravity and hence the motion of the planets. * He is also famed for inventing nitrogenian mechanism and explicating his famous three laws of motion. * The first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations * He discovered Newtons identities, Newtons method, classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables) Newtons identities, also known as the NewtonGirard formulae, give relations between two types of symmetric polynomials, namely between power sums and easy symmetric polynomials.Evaluated at the roots of a monic polynomial P in one variable, they allow expressing the sums of the k-th powers of all roots of P (counted with their multiplicity) in terms of the coefficients of P, without real finding those roots * Newtons method (also known as the NewtonRaphson method), named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a method for finding in turn better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz Birthdate July 1, 1646 Died November 14, 1716 Nationality GermanContributions * Leibniz invented a mechanical reason machine which would multiply as well as add, the chemical mechanism of which were still being used as late as 1940. * Developed the infinitesimal calculus. * He became one of the most fecund inventors in the field of mechanical calculators. * He was the first to describe a pinwheel wind collector calculator in 16856 and invented the Leibniz wheel, used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator. * He also refined the double star number system, which is at the foundation of virtually all digital ready reckoners. Leibniz was the first, in 1692 and 1694, to employ it explicitly, to cite any of several geometric concepts derived from a curve, such as abscissa, ordinate, tangent, chord, and the perpendicular. * Leibniz was the first to put one across that the coefficients of a system of linear equations could be arranged into an array, now called a matrix, which can be manipulated to find the solution of the system. * He introduced several notations used to this day, for instance the integral sign ? representing an elongated S, from the Latin word summa and the d used for differentials, from the Latin word differentia.This cleverly suggestive notation for the calculus is probably his most enduring mathematical legacy. * He was the ? rst to use the notation f(x). * The notation used today in Calculus df/dx and ? f x dx are Leibniz notation. * He also did work in decided mathematics and the foundations of logic. Favorite Mathematician Selecting favourite mathematician from these single persons in mathematics is a severe task, but as I read the contributions of these Mathematicians, I found Sir Isaac Newton to be the greatest mathematician of this period.He invented the useful but rough subject in mathematics- the calculus. I found him cooperative with different mathematician to derive useful formulas despite the fact that he is graphic enough. Open-mindedness towards others opinion is what I discerned in him. VI. Mathematicians in the 18th Century Jacob Bernoulli Birthdate 6 January 1655 Died 16 August 1705 Nationality Swiss Contributions * Founded a school for mathematics and the sciences. * Best known for the work Ars Conjectandi (The Art of Conjecture), published eight years after his death in 1713 by his nephew Nicholas. Jacob Bernoullis first important contributions were a booklet on the parallels of logic and algebra published in 1685, work on probability in 1685 and geometry in 1687. * Introduction of the theorem known as the law of large numbers. * By 1689 he had published important work on infinite series and published his law of large numbers in probability theory. * Published five treatises on infinite series between 1682 and 1704. * Bernoulli equation, y = p(x)y + q(x)yn. * Jacob Bernoullis paper of 1690 is important for the history of calculus, since the term integral appears for the first time with its integration meaning. discovered a general method to determine evolutes of a curve as the envelope of its circles of curvature. He also investigated caustic curves an d in particular he studied these associated curves of the parabola, the logarithmic verticillated and epicycloids around 1692. * Theory of electrical switchs and combinations the so-called Bernoulli numbers, by which he derived the exponential series. * He was the first to think about the convergence of an infinite series and proved that the series is convergent. * He was also the first to propose incessantly compounded interest, which led him to investigate Johan Bernoulli Birthdate 27 July 1667Died 1 January 1748 Nationality Swiss Contributions * He was a brilliant mathematician who make important discoveries in the field of calculus. * He is known for his contributions to infinitesimal calculus and educated Leonhard Euler in his youth. * Discovered fundamental principles of mechanics, and the laws of optics. * He discovered the Bernoulli series and make advances in theory of navigation and ship sailing. * Johann Bernoulli proposed the brachistochrone problem, which asks what s hape a telegraph must be for a bead to slide from one end to the other in the shortest possible time, as a challenge to other mathematicians in June 1696.For this, he is regarded as one of the founders of the calculus of variations. Daniel Bernoulli Birthdate 8 February 1700 Died 17 March 1782 Nationality Swiss Contributions * He is particularly remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics. * His pioneering work in probability and statistics. Nicolaus Bernoulli Birthdate February 6, 1695 Died July 31, 1726 Nationality Swiss Contributions Worked mostly on curves, differential equations, and probability. He also contributed to nomadic dynamics. Abraham de Moivre Birthdate 26 may 1667 Died 27 November 1754 Nationality French Contributions Produced the second textbook on probability theory, The Doctrine of Chances a method of calculating the probabilities of events in play. * Pioneered the development of analytic geometry and the theory of probability. * Gives the fir st statement of the formula for the usual dispersal curve, the first method of finding the probability of the occurrence of an error of a given size when that error is show in terms of the variability of the diffusion as a unit, and the first denomination of the probable error calculation. Additionally, he applied these theories to gambling problems and actuarial tables. In 1733 he proposed the formula for estimating a factorial as n = cnn+1/2e? n. * Published an clause called Annuities upon Lives, in which he revealed the normal scattering of the mortality rate over a persons age. * De Moivres formula which he was able to prove for all positive integral values of n. * In 1722 he suggested it in the more well-known(a) form of de Moivres Formula Colin Maclaurin Birthdate February, 1698 Died 14 June 1746 Nationality economical Contributions * Maclaurin used Taylor series to characterize maxima, minima, and points of inflexion for infinitely differentiable functions in his Tre atise of Fluxions. Made significant contributions to the gravitation attraction of roundeds. * Maclaurin discovered the EulerMaclaurin formula. He used it to sum powers of arithmetic progressions, derive Stirlings formula, and to derive the Newton-Cotes numerical integration formulas which includes Simpsons rule as a special case. * Maclaurin contributed to the study of ovoid integrals, reducing many intractable integrals to problems of finding arcs for hyperbolas. * Maclaurin proved a rule for solving square linear systems in the cases of 2 and 3 unknowns, and discussed the case of 4 unknowns. Some of his important works are Geometria Organica 1720 * De Linearum Geometricarum Proprietatibus 1720 * Treatise on Fluxions 1742 (763 pages in two volumes. The first systematic exposition of Newtons methods. ) * Treatise on Algebra 1748 (two years after his death. ) * Account of Newtons Discoveries partial upon his death and published in 1750 or 1748 (sources disagree) * Colin Mac laurin was the name used for the new Mathematics and Actuarial Mathematics and Statistics Building at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh. Lenard Euler Birthdate 15 April 1707 Died 18 September 1783 Nationality Swiss Contributions He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. * He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. * He is also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, and astronomy. * Euler introduced and popularized several notational conventions through his numerous and widely circulated textbooks. Most notably, he introduced the concept of a function 2 and was the first to write f(x) to denote the function f applied to the argument x. He also introduced the modern notation for the trigonometric functions, the letter e for the base of the natural logarithm (now also known as Eulers number), t he Greek letter ? for summations and the letter i to denote the imaginary unit. * The use of the Greek letter ? to denote the ratio of a circles lap to its diameter was also popularized by Euler. * swell up known in analysis for his browse use and development of power series, the expression of functions as sums of infinitely many terms, such as * Euler introduced the use of the exponential function and logarithms in analytic proofs. He discovered ways to express various logarithmic functions using power series, and he successfully defined logarithms for negative and complex numbers, thus greatly expanding the scope of mathematical applications of logarithms. * He also defined the exponential function for complex numbers, and discovered its relation to the trigonometric functions. * Elaborated the theory of higher mysterious functions by introducing the gamma function and introduced a new method for solving quartic equations. He also found a way to calculate integrals with comple x fixates, predict the development of modern complex analysis.He also invented the calculus of variations including its best-known result, the EulerLagrange equation. * Pioneered the use of analytic methods to solve number theory problems. * Euler created the theory of hypergeometric series, q-series, hyperbolic trigonometric functions and the analytic theory of continued fractions. For example, he proved the limitlessness of primes using the divergence of the harmonic series, and he used analytic methods to gain some understanding of the way prime numbers are distributed. Eulers work in this area led to the development of the prime number theorem. He proved that the sum of the reciprocals of the primes diverges. In doing so, he discovered the connection between the Riemann zeta function and the prime numbers this is known as the Euler product formula for the Riemann zeta function. * He also invented the totient function ? (n) which is the number of positive whole numbers less th an or equal to the integer n that are coprime to n. * Euler also conjectured the law of quadratic reciprocality. The concept is regarded as a fundamental theorem of number theory, and his ideas paved the way for the work of Carl Friedrich Gauss. * Discovered the formula V ?E + F = 2 relating the number of vertices, edges, and faces of a convex polyhedron. * He made great strides in improving the numerical approximation of integrals, inventing what are now known as the Euler approximations. Jean Le Rond De Alembert Birthdate 16 November 1717 Died 29 October 1783 Nationality French Contributions * DAlemberts formula for obtaining solutions to the beckon equation is named after him. * In 1743 he published his most famous work, Traite de dynamique, in which he developed his own laws of motion. * He created his ratio test, a test to see if a series converges. The DAlembert operator, which first arose in DAlemberts analysis of vibrating strings, plays an important role in modern theoret ical physics. * He made several contributions to mathematics, including a suggestion for a theory of limits. * He was one of the first to appreciate the importance of functions, and defined the first derivative of a function as the limit of a quotient of increments. Joseph Louise Lagrange Birthdate 25 January 1736 Died 10 April 1813 Nationality Italian French Contributions * Published the Mecanique Analytique which is considered to be his monolithic work in the pure maths. His most prominent influence was his contribution to the the metric system and his addition of a decimal base. * Some refer to Lagrange as the founder of the Metric System. * He was responsible for developing the groundwork for an alternate method of write Newtons Equations of Motion. This is referred to as Lagrangian Mechanics. * In 1772, he described the Langrangian points, the points in the plane of two objects in orbit around their common center of gravity at which the combined gravitational forces are zero, and where a third member of negligible mass can remain at rest. He made significant contributions to all fields of analysis, number theory, and classical and celestial mechanics. * Was one of the creators of the calculus of variations, lineage the EulerLagrange equations for extrema of functionals. * He also extended the method to take into account possible constraints, arriving at the method of Lagrange multipliers. * Lagrange invented the method of solving differential equations known as variation of parameters, applied differential calculus to the theory of probabilities and come through notable work on the solution of equations. * He proved that every natural number is a sum of four squares. Several of his early papers also deal with questions of number theory. 1. Lagrange (17661769) was the first to prove that Pells equation has a nontrivial solution in the integers for any non-square natural number n. 7 2. He proved the theorem, stated by Bachet without justification, that every positive integer is the sum of four squares, 1770. 3. He proved Wilsons theorem that n is a prime if and only if (n ? 1) + 1 is always a multiple of n, 1771. 4. His papers of 1773, 1775, and 1777 gave demonstrations of several results enunciated by Fermat, and not previously proved. 5.His Recherches dArithmetique of 1775 developed a general theory of binary quadratic forms to handle the general problem of when an integer is representable by the form. Gaspard Monge Birthdate may 9, 1746 Died July 28, 1818 Nationality French Contributions * Inventor of descriptive geometry, the mathematical basis on which practiced drafting is based. * Published the following books in mathematics 1. The Art of Manufacturing Cannon (1793)3 2. Geometrie descriptive. Lecons donnees aux ecoles normales (Descriptive Geometry) a arranging of Monges lectures. (1799) Pierre Simon Laplace Birthdate 23 March 1749Died 5 March 1827 Nationality French Contributions * Formulated Laplaces equation, and pi oneered the Laplace understand which appears in many branches of mathematical physics. * Laplacian differential operator, widely used in mathematics, is also named after him. * He restated and developed the cloudlike hypothesis of the origin of the solar system * Was one of the first scientists to postulate the existence of black holes and the notion of gravitational collapse. * Laplace made the non-trivial extension of the result to three dimensions to coming back a more general set of functions, the spherical harmonics or Laplace coefficients. Issued his Theorie analytique des probabilites in which he laid down many fundamental results in statistics. * Laplaces most important work was his Celestial Mechanics published in 5 volumes between 1798-1827. In it he sought to give a complete mathematical interpretation of the solar system. * In Inductive probability, Laplace set out a mathematical system of inductive reasoning based on probability, which we would today recognise as Bay esian. He begins the text with a series of principles of probability, the first six being 1.Probability is the ratio of the elevate events to the total possible events. 2. The first principle assumes equal probabilities for all events. When this is not true, we must first determine the probabilities of each event. accordingly, the probability is the sum of the probabilities of all possible favored events. 3. For independent events, the probability of the occurrence of all is the probability of each work out together. 4. For events not independent, the probability of event B following event A (or event A causing B) is the probability of A multiplied by the probability that A and B both occur. 5.The probability that A will occur, given that B has occurred, is the probability of A and B occurring divided by the probability of B. 6. Three corollaries are given for the sixth principle, which amount to Bayesian probability. Where event Ai ? A1, A2, An exhausts the list of possible ca uses for event B, Pr(B) = Pr(A1, A2, An). Then * Amongst the other discoveries of Laplace in pure and applied mathematics are 1. Discussion, contemporaneously with Alexandre-Theophile Vandermonde, of the general theory of determinants, (1772) 2. Proof that every equation of an even degree must have at least one real quadratic factor 3.Solution of the linear partial differential equation of the second holy order 4. He was the first to consider the difficult problems involved in equations of mixed unlikenesss, and to prove that the solution of an equation in finite differences of the first degree and the second order might always be obtained in the form of a continued fraction and 5. In his theory of probabilities 6. Evaluation of several common definite integrals and 7. General proof of the Lagrange reversion theorem. Adrian Marie Legendere Birthdate 18 September 1752 Died 10 January 1833 Nationality French Contributions Well-known and important concepts such as the Legendre polyn omials. * He developed the least squares method, which has broad application in linear regression, signal processing, statistics, and curve fitting this was published in 1806. * He made substantial contributions to statistics, number theory, abstract algebra, and mathematical analysis. * In number theory, he conjectured the quadratic reciprocity law, subsequently proved by Gauss in connection to this, the Legendre image is named after him. * He also did pioneering work on the distribution of primes, and on the application of analysis to number theory. Best known as the author of Elements de geometrie, which was published in 1794 and was the leading elementary text on the topic for around 100 years. * He introduced what are now known as Legendre functions, solutions to Legendres differential equation, used to determine, via power series, the attraction of an ellipsoid at any exterior point. * Published books 1. Elements de geometrie, textbook 1794 2. Essai sur la Theorie des Nombres 1798 3. Nouvelles Methodes pour la Determination des Orbites des Cometes, 1806 4. Exercices de Calcul Integral, book in three volumes 1811, 1817, and 1819 5.Traite des Fonctions Elliptiques, book in three volumes 1825, 1826, and 1830 Simon Dennis Poison Birthdate 21 June 1781 Died 25 April 1840 Nationality French Contributions * He published two memoirs, one on Etienne Bezouts method of elimination, the other on the number of integrals of a finite difference equation. * Poissons well-known correction of Laplaces second order partial differential equation for potential today named after him Poissons equation or the potential theory equation, was first published in the Bulletin de la societe philomatique (1813). Poissons equation for the divergence of the gradient of a scalar field, ? in 3-dimensional space Charles Babbage Birthdate 26 December 1791 Death 18 October 1871 Nationality English Contributions * mechanically skillful engineer who originated the concept of a programmable co mputer. * assign with inventing the first mechanical computer that ultimately led to more complex designs. * He invented the Difference Engine that could compute simple calculations, like multiplication or addition, but its most important trait was its ability create tables of the results of up to seven-degree polynomial functions. Invented the analytic Engine, and it was the first machine ever designed with the idea of programming a computer that could understand commands and could be programmed much like a modern-day computer. * He produced a Table of logarithms of the natural numbers from 1 to 108000 which was a standard reference from 1827 through the end of the century. Favorite Mathematician Noticeably, Leonard Euler made a mark in the field of Mathematics as he contributed several concepts and formulas that encompasses many areas of Mathematics-Geometry, Calculus, Trigonometry and etc.He deserves to be praised for doing such great things in Mathematics, indeed, his work la id foundation to make the lives of the following generation sublime, ergo, He is my favourite mathematician. VII. Mathematicians in the 19th Century Carl Friedrich Gauss Birthdate 30 April 1777 Died 23 February 1855 Nationality German Contributions * He became the first to prove the quadratic reciprocity law. * Gauss also made important contributions to number theory with his 1801 book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin, Arithmetical Investigations), which, among things, introduced the symbol ? or congruence and used it in a clean presentation of modular arithmetic, contained the first two proofs of the law of quadratic reciprocity, developed the theories of binary and ternary quadratic forms, stated the class number problem for them, and showed that a regular heptadecagon (17-sided polygon) can be constructed with straightedge and compass. * He developed a method of measuring the horizontal intensity of the magnetised field which was in use well into the second half of the 20th ce ntury, and worked out the mathematical theory for separating the inner and outermost (magnetospheric) sources of Earths magnetic field.Agustin Cauchy Birthdate 21 August 1789 Died 23 May 1857 Nationality French Contributions * His most notable research was in the theory of residues, the question of convergence, differential equations, theory of functions, the legitimate use of imaginary numbers, operations with determinants, the theory of equations, the theory of probability, and the applications of mathematics to physics. * His writings introduced new standards of rigor in calculus from which grew the modern field of analysis.In Cours danalyse de lEcole Polytechnique (1821), by developing the concepts of limits and continuity, he provided the foundation for calculus basically as it is today. * He introduced the epsilon-delta definition for limits (epsilon for error and delta for difference). * He modify the theory of complex functions by discovering integral theorems and introdu cing the calculus of residues. * Cauchy founded the modern theory of snapshot by applying the notion of pressure on a plane, and assuming that this pressure was no longer perpendicular to the plane upon which it acts in an elastic body.In this way, he introduced the concept of latent hostility into the theory of elasticity. * He also examined the possible deformations of an elastic body and introduced the notion of strain. * One of the most prolific mathematicians of all time, he produced 789 mathematics papers, including 500 after the age of fifty. * He had sixteen concepts and theorems named for him, including the Cauchy integral theorem, the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality, Cauchy sequence and Cauchy-Riemann equations. He defined continuity in terms of infinitesimals and gave several important theorems in complex analysis and initiated the study of permutation radicals in abstract algebra. * He started the project of formulating and proving the theorems of infinitesimal calculus in a rigorous manner. * He was the first to define complex numbers as pairs of real numbers. * Most famous for his single-handed development of complex function theory.The first important theorem proved by Cauchy, now known as Cauchys integral theorem, was the following where f(z) is a complex-valued function holomorphic on and within the non-self-intersecting closed in(p) curve C (contour) lying in the complex plane. * He was the first to prove Taylors theorem rigorously. * His greatest contributions to mathematical science are enveloped in the rigorous methods which he introduced these are mainly embodied in his three great treatises 1. Cours danalyse de lEcole royale polytechnique (1821) 2. Le Calcul infinitesimal (1823) 3.Lecons sur les applications de calcul infinitesimal La geometrie (18261828) Nicolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky Birthdate December 1, 1792 Died February 24, 1856 Nationality Russian Contributions * Lobachevskys great contribution to the development of modern mathemati cs begins with the fifth postulate (sometimes referred to as axiom XI) in Euclids Elements. A modern version of this postulate reads Through a point lying outside a given line only one line can be displace parallel to the given line. * Lobachevskys geometry found application in the theory of complex numbers, the theory of vectors, and the theory of relativity. Lobachevskiis deductions produced a geometry, which he called imaginary, that was internally consistent and harmonious yet different from the traditional one of Euclid. In 1826, he presented the paper Brief Exposition of the Principles of Geometry with vigorous Proofs of the Theorem of Parallels. He refined his imaginary geometry in subsequent works, dating from 1835 to 1855, the last being Pangeometry. * He was well respected in the work he developed with the theory of infinite series especially trigonometric series, integral calculus, and probability. In 1834 he found a method for approximating the roots of an algebraic alal equation. * Lobachevsky also gave the definition of a function as a correspondence between two sets of real numbers. Johann Peter Gustav Le Jeune Dirichlet Birthdate 13 February 1805 Died 5 May 1859 Nationality German Contributions * German mathematician with deep contributions to number theory (including creating the field of analytic number theory) and to the theory of Fourier series and other topics in mathematical analysis. * He is credited with being one of the first mathematicians to give the modern formal definition of a function. Published important contributions to the biquadratic reciprocity law. * In 1837 he published Dirichlets theorem on arithmetic progressions, using mathematical analysis concepts to tackle an algebraic problem and thus creating the branch of analytic number theory. * He introduced the Dirichlet characters and L-functions. * In a couple of papers in 1838 and 1839 he proved the first class number formula, for quadratic forms. * Based on his researc h of the structure of the unit group of quadratic fields, he proved the Dirichlet unit theorem, a fundamental result in algebraic number theory. He first used the pigeonhole principle, a basic reckoning argument, in the proof of a theorem in diophantine approximation, later named after him Dirichlets approximation theorem. * In 1826, Dirichlet proved that in any arithmetic progression with first term coprime to the difference there are infinitely many primes. * Developed significant theorems in the areas of elliptic functions and applied analytic techniques to mathematical theory that resulted in the fundamental development of number theory. * His lectures on the equilibrium of systems and potential theory led to what is known as the Dirichlet problem.It involves finding solutions to differential equations for a given set of values of the boundary points of the region on which the equations are defined. The problem is also known as the first boundary-value problem of potential theor em. Evariste Galois Birthdate 25 October 1811 Death 31 May 1832 Nationality French Contributions * His work laid the foundations for Galois Theory and group theory, two major branches of abstract algebra, and the subfield of Galois connections. * He was the first to use the word group (French groupe) as a technical term in mathematics to represent a group of permutations. Galois published three papers, one of which laid the foundations for Galois Theory. The second one was about the numerical resolution of equations (root finding in modern terminology). The third was an important one in number theory, in which the concept of a finite field was first articulated. * Galois mathematical contributions were published in full in 1843 when Liouville reviewed his manuscript and stated it sound. It was finally published in the OctoberNovember 1846 issue of the Journal de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees. 16 The most famous contribution of this manuscript was a novel proof that there is no q uintic formula that is, that fifth and higher degree equations are not generally solvable by radicals. * He also introduced the concept of a finite field (also known as a Galois field in his honor), in essentially the same form as it is still today. * One of the founders of the branch of algebra known as group theory. He developed the concept that is today known as a normal subgroup. * Galois most significant contribution to mathematics by far is his development of Galois Theory.He realized that the algebraic solution to a polynomial equation is related to the structure of a group of permutations associated with the roots of the polynomial, the Galois group of the polynomial. He found that an equation could be solved in radicals if one can find a series of subgroups of its Galois group, each one normal in its surrogate with abelian quotient, or its Galois group is solvable. This proved to be a fertile approach, which later mathematicians vary to many other fields of mathematics besides the theory of equations to which Galois orig